Scott Hanselman

Learning about the F# SAFE stack -, Azure, Fable, Elmish

October 08, 2017 Comment on this post [5] Posted in DotNetCore | Open Source
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Last month I looked at a Functional Web with ASP.NET Core and F#'s Giraffe. Giraffe is F# middleware that takes ASP.NET Core's pipeline in a new direction with a functional perspective. However, Giraffe isn't the only F# web stack to choose from! There's Freya, WebSharper, and there's also a very interesting and quite complete story with The SAFE Stack.

The SAFE Stack

The SAFE Stack is an open source stack, like LAMP, or WAMP, or other acronym stacks, except this one is all open source .NET with a functional perspective. From the announcement blog:

  • Suave model for server-side web programming
  • Azure for cloud-based systems
  • Fable for Javascript-enabled applications.
  • Elmish for an easy-to-understand UI programming mode

To be clear, while this is a prescriptive stack, it's not a stack that forces you to do anything. You can swap bits out as you please.

Fable is particularly interesting as it's an F# to JavaScript transpiler. Try Fable online here and turn F# into JavaScript LIVE! Their Sudoku sample is particularly impressive.

Here's two small - but interesting - examples where F# code ends up as JavaScript which ends up creating ReactJS components:

let words size message =
    R.span [ Style [ !!("fontSize", size |> sprintf "%dpx") ] ] [ R.str message ]

let buttonLink cssClass onClick elements = 
    R.a [ ClassName cssClass
          OnClick (fun _ -> onClick())
          OnTouchStart (fun _ -> onClick())
          Style [ !!("cursor", "pointer") ] ] elements

Then later in a Menu.fs that also turns into JavaScript eventually, you can see where they conditionally render the Button for logout, or links for for other Views for the Home Page or Wishlist. You can read lots more about Fable over at the Compositional IT blog.

let view (model:Model) dispatch =
    div [ centerStyle "row" ] [ 
          yield viewLink Home "Home"
          if model.User <> None then 
              yield viewLink Page.WishList "Wishlist"
          if model.User = None then 
              yield viewLink Login "Login" 
              yield buttonLink "logout" (fun _ -> dispatch Logout) [ str "Logout" ]

Elmish for F# takes the Model View Update (MVU) architecture and brings it to F# and the browser. There's a good breakdown of the value Elmish provides also at the Compositional IT blog.

Suave is its own cross platform Web Server. Here's Hello World in Suave.

open Suave

startWebServer defaultConfig (Successful.OK "Hello World!")

Suave has been around for while and gets better all the time. I blogged about it in 2015 and got it running on Azure. My blog post is not a best practice any more - it was a spike attempt by me - and fortunately they've moved on and improved things.

Here's Suave getting set up within the sample app. Check out how they route HTTP Verbs and URL paths.

    let serverConfig =
        { defaultConfig with
            logger = Targets.create LogLevel.Debug [|"ServerCode"; "Server" |]
            homeFolder = Some clientPath
            bindings = [ HttpBinding.create HTTP (IPAddress.Parse "") port] }

    let app =
        choose [
            GET >=> choose [
                path "/" >=> Files.browseFileHome "index.html"
                pathRegex @"/(public|js|css|Images)/(.*)\.(css|png|gif|jpg|js|map)" >=> Files.browseHome

                path "/api/wishlist/" >=> WishList.getWishList loadFromDb ]

            POST >=> choose [
                path "/api/users/login" >=> Auth.login

                path "/api/wishlist/" >=> WishList.postWishList saveToDb

            NOT_FOUND "Page not found."

        ] >=> logWithLevelStructured Logging.Info logger logFormatStructured

    startWebServer serverConfig app

Very interesting stuff! There are so many options in .NET open source. I'll be doing podcasts on this stack soon.

Trying out the SAFE Stack

If you're using Visual Studio Community 2017, make sure you've got F# support included. I double-checked under Individual components. You can run the VS2017 installer multiple time and add and remove stuff without breaking things, so don't worry. If you are using other versions of VS, check here to get the right download for your machine. If you're using Visual Studio Code, you'll want the Ionide F# plugin for Code.

Adding F# to Visual Studio Community 2017

Once I had node and yarn installed, it was easy to try out the sample app and get it running locally with "build run." It uses DotNetWatcher, so you can just keep it running in the background and work on your code and it'll recompile and restart as you go.

The SAFE stack running

The complete "SAFE" stack demo website is LIVE here (login test/test/) and all the source code for the app is here:

UPDATE: One important point from F# Community Member Steffan Forkmann: "One thing I'd like to add is that SAFE is also an initiative to get multiple companies to give commercial support for this stack. This is IMHO very important for commercial use of an open source stack."

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About Scott

Scott Hanselman is a former professor, former Chief Architect in finance, now speaker, consultant, father, diabetic, and Microsoft employee. He is a failed stand-up comic, a cornrower, and a book author.

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October 08, 2017 12:33
Thanks for this blog post Scott, always nice to see some F# promotion.
October 09, 2017 20:27
I was excited about F# for about a year. Then I figured out it would always be a second-class citizen to C#. But that year was time well spent learning functional programming. Now I've delving into other functional languages outside of .NET.

(I was also excited about Windows Phone too, but my current one will be my last...)

October 10, 2017 10:38
Thanks.Good to know about F# Hansy.
October 10, 2017 11:19
One thing I really love about F# is the way it's type system lets you model domains with incredible clarity and accuracy. This talk by Scott Wlaschin is a great introduction to that:
October 11, 2017 13:58
I never heard about Safe Stack. I will try itu soon. Thanks

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Disclaimer: The opinions expressed herein are my own personal opinions and do not represent my employer's view in any way.