Scott Hanselman

A wonderfully unholy alliance - Real Linux commands for PowerShell with WSL function wrappers

October 1, '19 Comments [10] Posted in Linux | PowerShell
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Dropdown filled with shells in the Windows TerminalI posted recently about What's the difference between a console, a terminal, and a shell? The world of Windows is interesting - and a little weird and unfamiliar to non-Windows people. You might use Ubuntu or Mac and you've picked your shell like zsh or bash or pwsh, but then you come to Windows and we're hopping between shells (and now operating systems with WSL!) on a tab by tab basis.

If you're using a Windows shell like PowerShell because you like it's .NET Core based engine and powerful scripting language, you might still miss common *nix shell commands like ls, grep, sed and more.

No matter what shell you're using in Windows (powershell, yori, cmd, whatever) you can always call into your default Ubuntu instance with "wsl command" so "wsl ls" or "wsl grep" but it'd be nice to make those more naturally and comfortably integrated.

Now there's a new series of "function wrappers" that make Linux commands available directly in PowerShell so you can easily transition between multiple environments.

This might seem weird but it allows us to create amazing piped commands that move in and out of Windows and Linux, PowerShell and bash. It's actually pretty amazing and very natural if you, like me, are non-denominational in your choice of operating system and preferred shell.

These function wrappers are very neatly designed and even expose TAB completion across operating systems! That means I can type Linux commands in PowerShell and TAB completion comes along!

It's super easy to set up. From Mike Battista's Github

  • Install PowerShell Core
  • Install the Windows Subsystem for Linux (WSL)
  • Install the WslInterop module with Install-Module WslInterop
  • Import commands with Import-WslCommand either from your profile for persistent access or on demand when you need a command (e.g. Import-WslCommand "awk", "emacs", "grep", "head", "less", "ls", "man", "sed", "seq", "ssh", "tail", "vim")

You'll do your Install-Module just one, and then run notepad $profile and add just a that single last line. Make sure you change it to expose the WSL/Linux commands that you want. Once you're done, you can just open PowerShell Core and mix and match your commands!

From the blog, "With these function wrappers in place, we can now call our favorite Linux commands in a more natural way without having to prefix them with wsl or worry about how Windows paths are translated to WSL paths:"

  • man bash
  • less -i $profile.CurrentUserAllHosts
  • ls -Al C:\Windows\ | less
  • grep -Ein error *.log
  • tail -f *.log

It's a really genius thing and kudos to Mike for sharing it with us! Go try it now. https://github.com/mikebattista/PowerShell-WSL-Interop


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About Scott

Scott Hanselman is a former professor, former Chief Architect in finance, now speaker, consultant, father, diabetic, and Microsoft employee. He is a failed stand-up comic, a cornrower, and a book author.

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Installing PowerShell with one line as a .NET Core global tool

July 18, '19 Comments [4] Posted in DotNetCore | Open Source | PowerShell
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I'PowerShell Mascotm a huge fan of .NET Core global tools. I've done a podcast on Global Tools. Just like Node and other platform have globally tools that can be easily and quickly installed and then used in build scripts, CI/CD (Continuous Integration/Continuous Deployment) systems, or just general command line utilities, .NET Global Tools are easily made (by you!) and distributed via NuGet.

Some cool examples (and there are hundreds) are the "Try .NET" Workshop runner and creator that can you can use to make interactive documentation, or coverlet for code coverage. There's a great and growing list of .NET Core Global Tools on GitHub.

If you've got the .NET SDK installed you can try out a global tool just like this.

dotnet tool install -g dotnetsay

Then run this example with "dotnetsay," it's fun.

stepping back a moment, you may be familiar with PowerShell. It's a scripting language and a command line shell like Bash or DOS or the Windows Command Prompt. You may think of PowerShell as a tool for maintaining and managing Windows Servers.

However in recent years, PowerShell has gone cross platform and runs most anywhere. It's lightweight and has .NET Core at its, ahem, core. You can use PowerShell for scripting systems on any platform and if you're a .NET developer the team has made installing and immediately using PowerShell in scripts a one liner - which is genius. It's PowerShell as a .NET Global Tool.

Here's an example output from my system running Ubuntu. I just "dotnet tool install --global PowerShell."

$ dotnet --version
2.1.502
$ dotnet tool install --global PowerShell
You can invoke the tool using the following command: pwsh
Tool 'powershell' (version '6.2.2') was successfully installed.
$ pwsh
PowerShell 6.1.1
https://aka.ms/pscore6-docs
Type 'help' to get help.
PS /mnt/c/Users/Scott/Desktop>
exit

Here I've checked that I have .NET 2.x or above, then I install PowerShell. I can run scripts or I can drop into the interactive shell. Note the PS prompt and my current directory above.

In fact, PowerShell is so useful as a scripting language when combined with .NET Core that PowerShell has been included as a global tool within the .NET Core 3.0 Preview Docker images since Preview 4. This means you can use PowerShell lines/scripts inside Docker images.

FROM mcr.microsoft.com/dotnet/core/sdk:3.0
RUN pwsh -c Get-Date
RUN pwsh -c "Get-Module -ListAvailable | Select-Object -Property Name, Path"

Being able to easily install PowerShell as a global tool means you can count on it in your scripts, CI/CDs systems, or docker containers. It's also nice to be able to be able to use existing PowerShell scripts cross platform.

I'm impressed with this idea - installing PowerShell itself as a .NET Global Tool. Very clever and useful.


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About Scott

Scott Hanselman is a former professor, former Chief Architect in finance, now speaker, consultant, father, diabetic, and Microsoft employee. He is a failed stand-up comic, a cornrower, and a book author.

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Adding Reaction Gifs for your Build System and the Windows Terminal

June 25, '19 Comments [6] Posted in Open Source | PowerShell | Win10
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So, first, I'm having entirely too much fun with the new open source Windows Terminal. If you've got the latest version of Windows (go run Windows Update and do whatever it takes) then you can download the Windows Terminal from the Microsoft Store! This is a preview release (think v0.2) but it'll automatically update, often, from the Windows Store if you have Windows 10 version 18362.0 or higher.

One of the most fun things is that you can have background images. Even animated gifs! You can add those images in your Settings/profile.json like this.

"backgroundImage": "c:/users/scott/desktop/doug.gif",
"backgroundImageOpacity": 0.7,
"backgroundImageStretchMode": "uniformToFill

The profile.json is just JSON and you can update it. I could even update it programmatically if I wanted to parse it and mess about.

BUT. Enterprising developer Chris Duck created a lovely PowerShell Module called MSTerminalSettings that lets you very easily make Profile changes with script.

For example, Mac developers who use iTerm often go to https://iterm2colorschemes.com/ and get new color schemes for their consoles. Now Windows folks can as well!

From his docs, this example downloads the Pandora color scheme from https://iterm2colorschemes.com/ and sets it as the color scheme for the PowerShell Core terminal profile.

Invoke-RestMethod -Uri 'https://raw.githubusercontent.com/mbadolato/iTerm2-Color-Schemes/master/schemes/Pandora.itermcolors' -OutFile .\Pandora.itermcolors
Import-Iterm2ColorScheme -Path .\Pandora.itermcolors -Name Pandora
Get-MSTerminalProfile -Name "PowerShell Core" | Set-MSTerminalProfile -ColorScheme Pandora

That's easy! Then I was talking to Tyler Leonhardt and suggested that we programmatically change the background using a folder full of Animated Gifs. I happen to have such a folder (with 2000 categorized gif classics) so we started coding and streamed the whole debacle on Tyler's Twitch!

The result is Windows Terminal Attract Mode and it's a hot mess and it is up on GitHub and all set up for PowerShell Core.

Remember that "Attract mode" is the mode an idle arcade cabinet goes into in order to attract passersby to play, so clearly the Terminal needs this also.

./AttractMode.ps1 -name "profile name" -path "c:\temp\trouble" -secs 5

It's a proof of concept for now, and it's missing background/runspace support, being wrapped up in a proper module, etc but the idea is solid, building on a solid base, with improvements to idiomatic PowerShell Core already incoming. Right now it'll run forever. Wrap it in Start-Job if you like as well and can stand it.

The next idea was to have reactions gifs to different developer situations. Break the build? Reaction Gif. Passing tests? Reaction Gif.

Here's a silly proof (not refactored) that aliases "dotnet build" to "db" with reactions.

#messing around with build reaction gifs

Function DotNetAlias {
dotnet build
if ($?) {
Start-job -ScriptBlock {
d:\github\TerminalAttractMode\SetMoodGif.ps1 "PowerShell Core" "D:\Dropbox\Reference\Animated Gifs\chrispratt.gif"
Start-Sleep 1.5
d:\github\TerminalAttractMode\SetMoodGif.ps1 "PowerShell Core" "D:\Dropbox\Reference\Animated Gifs\4003cn5.gif"
} | Out-Null
}
else {
Start-job -ScriptBlock {
d:\github\TerminalAttractMode\SetMoodGif.ps1 "PowerShell Core" "D:\Dropbox\Reference\Animated Gifs\idk-girl.gif"
Start-Sleep 1.5
d:\github\TerminalAttractMode\SetMoodGif.ps1 "PowerShell Core" "D:\Dropbox\Reference\Animated Gifs\4003cn5.gif"
} | Out-Null

}
}

Set-Alias -Name db -value DotNetAlias

I added the Start-job stuff so that the build finishes and the Terminal returns control to you while the gifs still are updating. Runspace support would be smart as well.

Some other ideas? Giphy support. Random mood gifs. Pick me ups. You get the idea.

Later, Brandon Olin jumped in with this gem. Why not get a reaction gif if anything goes wrong in your last command? ERRORLEVEL 1? Explode.

Why are we doing this? Because it sparks joy, y'all.


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About Scott

Scott Hanselman is a former professor, former Chief Architect in finance, now speaker, consultant, father, diabetic, and Microsoft employee. He is a failed stand-up comic, a cornrower, and a book author.

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F7 is the greatest PowerShell hotkey that no one uses any more. We must fix this.

March 26, '19 Comments [14] Posted in Musings | PowerShell
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Thousands of years ago your ancestors, and myself, were using DOS (or CMD) pressing F7 to get this amazing little ASCII box to pop up to pick commands they'd typed before.

Holy crap it's a little ASCII box

When I find myself in cmd.exe I use F7 a lot. Yes, I also speak *nix and Yes, Ctrl-R is amazing and lovely and you're awesome for knowing it and Yes, it works in PowerShell.

Ctrl-R for history works in PowerShell

Here's the tragedy. Ctrl-R for a reverse command search works in PowerShell because of a module called PSReadLine. PSReadLine is basically a part of PowerShell now and does dozens of countless little command line editing improvements. It also - not sure why and I'm still learning - unknowingly blocks the glorious F7 hotkey.

If you remove PSReadLine (you can do this safely, it'll just apply to the current session)

Remove-Module -Name PSReadLine

Why, then you get F7 history with a magical ASCII box back in PowerShell. And as we all know, 4k 3D VR be damned, impress me with ASCII if you want a developer's heart.

There is a StackOverflow Answer with a little PowerShell snippet that will popup - wait for it - a graphical list with your command history by calling

Set-PSReadlineKeyHandler -Key F7

And basically rebinding the PSReadlineKeyHandler for F7. PSReadline is brilliant, but I what I really want to do is to tell it to "chill" on F7. I don't want to bind or unbind F7 (it's not bound by default) I just want it passed through.

Until that day, I, and you, can just press Ctrl-R for our reverse history search, or get this sad shadow of an ASCII box by pressing "h." Yes, h is already aliased on your machine to Get-History.

PS C:\Users\scott> h

  Id CommandLine
   -- -----------
    1 dir
    2 Remove-Module -Name PSReadLine

Then you can even type "r 1" to "invoke-history" on item 1.

But I will still mourn my lovely ASCII (High ASCII? ANSI? VT100?) history box.


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About Scott

Scott Hanselman is a former professor, former Chief Architect in finance, now speaker, consultant, father, diabetic, and Microsoft employee. He is a failed stand-up comic, a cornrower, and a book author.

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Installing PowerShell Core on a Raspberry Pi (powered by .NET Core)

May 18, '18 Comments [3] Posted in Linux | Open Source | PowerShell
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PowerShell Core on a Raspberry Pi!Earlier this week I set up .NET Core and Docker on a Raspberry Pi and found that I could run my podcast website quite easily on a Pi. Check that post out as there's a lot going on. I can test within a Linux Container and output the test results to the host and then open them in VS. I also explored a reasonably complex Dockerfile that is both multiarch and multistage. I can reliably build and test my website either inside a container or on the bare metal of Windows or Linux. Very fun.

As primarily a Windows developer I have lots of batch/cmd files like "test.bat" or "dockerbuild.bat." They start as little throwaway bits of automation but as the project grows inevitably more complex.

I'm not interested in "selling" anyone PowerShell. If you like bash, use bash, it's lovely, as are shell scripts. PowerShell is object-oriented in its pipeline, moving lists of real objects as standard output. They are different and most importantly, they can live together. Just like you might call Python scripts from bash, you can call PowerShell scripts from bash, or vice versa. Another tool in our toolkits.

PS /home/pi> Get-Process | Where-Object WorkingSet -gt 10MB

NPM(K) PM(M) WS(M) CPU(s) Id SI ProcessName
------ ----- ----- ------ -- -- -----------
0 0.00 10.92 890.87 917 917 docker-containe
0 0.00 35.64 1,140.29 449 449 dockerd
0 0.00 10.36 0.88 1272 037 light-locker
0 0.00 20.46 608.04 1245 037 lxpanel
0 0.00 69.06 32.30 3777 749 pwsh
0 0.00 31.60 107.74 647 647 Xorg
0 0.00 10.60 0.77 1279 037 zenity
0 0.00 10.52 0.77 1280 037 zenity

Bash and shell scripts are SUPER powerful. It's a whole world. But it is text based (or json for some newer things) so you're often thinking about text more.

pi@raspberrypidotnet:~ $ ps aux | sort -rn -k 5,6 | head -n6
root 449 0.5 3.8 956240 36500 ? Ssl May17 19:00 /usr/bin/dockerd -H fd://
root 917 0.4 1.1 910492 11180 ? Ssl May17 14:51 docker-containerd --config /var/run/docker/containerd/containerd.toml
root 647 0.0 3.4 155608 32360 tty7 Ssl+ May17 1:47 /usr/lib/xorg/Xorg :0 -seat seat0 -auth /var/run/lightdm/root/:0 -nolisten tcp vt7 -novtswitch
pi 1245 0.2 2.2 153132 20952 ? Sl May17 10:08 lxpanel --profile LXDE-pi
pi 1272 0.0 1.1 145928 10612 ? Sl May17 0:00 light-locker
pi 1279 0.0 1.1 145020 10856 ? Sl May17 0:00 zenity --warning --no-wrap --text

You can take it as far as you like. For some it's intuitive power, for others, it's baroque.

pi@raspberrypidotnet:~ $ ps -eo size,pid,user,command --sort -size | awk '{ hr=$1/1024 ; printf("%13.2f Mb ",hr) } { for ( x=4 ; x<=NF ; x++ ) { printf("%s ",$x) } print "" }'
0.00 Mb COMMAND
161.14 Mb /usr/bin/dockerd -H fd://
124.20 Mb docker-containerd --config /var/run/docker/containerd/containerd.toml
78.23 Mb lxpanel --profile LXDE-pi
66.31 Mb /usr/lib/xorg/Xorg :0 -seat seat0 -auth /var/run/lightdm/root/:0 -nolisten tcp vt7 -novtswitch
61.66 Mb light-locker

Point is, there's choice. Here's a nice article about PowerShell from the perspective of a Linux user. Can I install PowerShell on my Raspberry Pi (or any Linux machine) and use the same scripts in both places? YES.

For many years PowerShell was a Windows-only thing that was part of the closed Windows ecosystem. In fact, here's video of me nearly 12 years ago (I was working in banking) talking to Jeffrey Snover about PowerShell. Today, PowerShell is open source up at https://github.com/PowerShell with lots of docs and scripts, also open source. PowerShell is supported on Windows, Mac, and a half-dozen Linuxes. Sound familiar? That's because it's powered (ahem) by open source cross platform .NET Core. You can get PowerShell Core 6.0 here on any platform.

Don't want to install it? Start it up in Docker in seconds with

docker run -it microsoft/powershell

Sweet. How about Raspbian on my ARMv7 based Raspberry Pi? I was running Raspbian Jessie and PowerShell is supported on Raspbian Stretch (newer) so I upgraded from Jesse to Stretch (and tidied up and did the firmware while I'm at it) with:

$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get upgrade
$ sudo apt-get dist-upgrade
$ sudo sed -i 's/jessie/stretch/g' /etc/apt/sources.list
$ sudo sed -i 's/jessie/stretch/g' /etc/apt/sources.list.d/raspi.list
$ sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get upgrade -y
$ sudo apt-get dist-upgrade -y
$ sudo rpi-update

Cool. Now I'm on Raspbian Stretch on my Raspberry Pi 3. Let's install PowerShell! These are just the most basic Getting Started instructions. Check out GitHub for advanced and detailed info if you have issues with prerequisites or paths.

NOTE: Here I'm getting PowerShell Core 6.0.2. Be sure to check the releases page for newer releases if you're reading this in the future. I've also used 6.1.0 (in preview) with success. The next 6.1 preview will upgrade to .NET Core 2.1. If you're just evaluating, get the latest preview as it'll have the most recent bug fixes.

$ sudo apt-get install libunwind8
$ wget https://github.com/PowerShell/PowerShell/releases/download/v6.0.2/powershell-6.0.2-linux-arm32.tar.gz
$ mkdir ~/powershell
$ tar -xvf ./powershell-6.0.2-linux-arm32.tar.gz -C ~/powershell
$ sudo ln -s ~/powershell/pwsh /usr/bin/pwsh
$ sudo ln -s ~/powershell/pwsh /usr/local/bin/powershell
$ powershell

Lovely.

GOTCHA: Because I upgraded from Jessie to Stretch, I ran into a bug where libssl1.0.0 is getting loaded over libssl1.0.2. This is a complex native issue with interaction between PowerShell and .NET Core 2.0 that's being fixed. Only upgraded machines like mind will it it, but it's easily fixed with sudo apt-get remove libssl1.0.0

Now this means my PowerShell build scripts can work on both Windows and Linux. This is a deeply trivial example (just one line) but note the "shebang" at the top that lets Linux know what a *.ps1 file is for. That means I can keep using bash/zsh/fish on Raspbian, but still "build.ps1" or "test.ps1" on any platform.

#!/usr/local/bin/powershell
dotnet watch --project .\hanselminutes.core.tests test /p:CollectCoverage=true /p:CoverletOutputFormat=lcov /p:CoverletOutput=./lcov

Here's a few totally random but lovely PowerShell examples:

PS /home/pi> Get-Date | Select-Object -Property * | ConvertTo-Json
{
"DisplayHint": 2,
"DateTime": "Sunday, May 20, 2018 5:55:35 AM",
"Date": "2018-05-20T00:00:00+00:00",
"Day": 20,
"DayOfWeek": 0,
"DayOfYear": 140,
"Hour": 5,
"Kind": 2,
"Millisecond": 502,
"Minute": 55,
"Month": 5,
"Second": 35,
"Ticks": 636623925355021162,
"TimeOfDay": {
"Ticks": 213355021162,
"Days": 0,
"Hours": 5,
"Milliseconds": 502,
"Minutes": 55,
"Seconds": 35,
"TotalDays": 0.24693868190046295,
"TotalHours": 5.9265283656111105,
"TotalMilliseconds": 21335502.1162,
"TotalMinutes": 355.59170193666665,
"TotalSeconds": 21335.502116199998
},
"Year": 2018
}

You can take PowerShell objects to and from Objects, Hashtables, JSON, etc.

PS /home/pi> $hash | ConvertTo-Json
{
"Shape": "Square",
"Color": "Blue",
"Number": 1
}
PS /home/pi> $hash = @{ Number = 1; Shape = "Square"; Color = "Blue"}
PS /home/pi> $hash

Name Value
---- -----
Shape Square
Color Blue
Number 1


PS /home/pi> $hash | ConvertTo-Json
{
"Shape": "Square",
"Color": "Blue",
"Number": 1
}

Here's a nice one from MCPMag:

PS /home/pi> $URI = "https://query.yahooapis.com/v1/public/yql?q=select  * from weather.forecast where woeid in (select woeid from geo.places(1) where  text='{0}, {1}')&format=json&env=store://datatables.org/alltableswithkeys"  -f 'Omaha','NE'
PS /home/pi> $Data = Invoke-RestMethod -Uri $URI
PS /home/pi> $Data.query.results.channel.item.forecast|Format-Table

code date day high low text
---- ---- --- ---- --- ----
39 20 May 2018 Sun 62 56 Scattered Showers
30 21 May 2018 Mon 78 53 Partly Cloudy
30 22 May 2018 Tue 88 61 Partly Cloudy
4 23 May 2018 Wed 89 67 Thunderstorms
4 24 May 2018 Thu 91 68 Thunderstorms
4 25 May 2018 Fri 92 69 Thunderstorms
34 26 May 2018 Sat 89 68 Mostly Sunny
34 27 May 2018 Sun 85 65 Mostly Sunny
30 28 May 2018 Mon 85 63 Partly Cloudy
47 29 May 2018 Tue 82 63 Scattered Thunderstorms

Or a one-liner if you want to be obnoxious.

PS /home/pi> (Invoke-RestMethod -Uri  "https://query.yahooapis.com/v1/public/yql?q=select  * from weather.forecast where woeid in (select woeid from geo.places(1) where  text='Omaha, NE')&format=json&env=store://datatables.org/alltableswithkeys").query.results.channel.item.forecast|Format-Table

Example: This won't work on Linux as it's using Windows specific AIPs, but if you've got PowerShell on your Windows machine, try out this one-liner for a cool demo:

iex (New-Object Net.WebClient).DownloadString("http://bit.ly/e0Mw9w")

Thoughts?


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About Scott

Scott Hanselman is a former professor, former Chief Architect in finance, now speaker, consultant, father, diabetic, and Microsoft employee. He is a failed stand-up comic, a cornrower, and a book author.

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Disclaimer: The opinions expressed herein are my own personal opinions and do not represent my employer's view in any way.