Scott Hanselman

Installing PowerShell Core on a Raspberry Pi (powered by .NET Core)

May 18, '18 Comments [3] Posted in Linux | Open Source | PowerShell
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PowerShell Core on a Raspberry Pi!Earlier this week I set up .NET Core and Docker on a Raspberry Pi and found that I could run my podcast website quite easily on a Pi. Check that post out as there's a lot going on. I can test within a Linux Container and output the test results to the host and then open them in VS. I also explored a reasonably complex Dockerfile that is both multiarch and multistage. I can reliably build and test my website either inside a container or on the bare metal of Windows or Linux. Very fun.

As primarily a Windows developer I have lots of batch/cmd files like "test.bat" or "dockerbuild.bat." They start as little throwaway bits of automation but as the project grows inevitably more complex.

I'm not interested in "selling" anyone PowerShell. If you like bash, use bash, it's lovely, as are shell scripts. PowerShell is object-oriented in its pipeline, moving lists of real objects as standard output. They are different and most importantly, they can live together. Just like you might call Python scripts from bash, you can call PowerShell scripts from bash, or vice versa. Another tool in our toolkits.

PS /home/pi> Get-Process | Where-Object WorkingSet -gt 10MB

NPM(K) PM(M) WS(M) CPU(s) Id SI ProcessName
------ ----- ----- ------ -- -- -----------
0 0.00 10.92 890.87 917 917 docker-containe
0 0.00 35.64 1,140.29 449 449 dockerd
0 0.00 10.36 0.88 1272 037 light-locker
0 0.00 20.46 608.04 1245 037 lxpanel
0 0.00 69.06 32.30 3777 749 pwsh
0 0.00 31.60 107.74 647 647 Xorg
0 0.00 10.60 0.77 1279 037 zenity
0 0.00 10.52 0.77 1280 037 zenity

Bash and shell scripts are SUPER powerful. It's a whole world. But it is text based (or json for some newer things) so you're often thinking about text more.

pi@raspberrypidotnet:~ $ ps aux | sort -rn -k 5,6 | head -n6
root 449 0.5 3.8 956240 36500 ? Ssl May17 19:00 /usr/bin/dockerd -H fd://
root 917 0.4 1.1 910492 11180 ? Ssl May17 14:51 docker-containerd --config /var/run/docker/containerd/containerd.toml
root 647 0.0 3.4 155608 32360 tty7 Ssl+ May17 1:47 /usr/lib/xorg/Xorg :0 -seat seat0 -auth /var/run/lightdm/root/:0 -nolisten tcp vt7 -novtswitch
pi 1245 0.2 2.2 153132 20952 ? Sl May17 10:08 lxpanel --profile LXDE-pi
pi 1272 0.0 1.1 145928 10612 ? Sl May17 0:00 light-locker
pi 1279 0.0 1.1 145020 10856 ? Sl May17 0:00 zenity --warning --no-wrap --text

You can take it as far as you like. For some it's intuitive power, for others, it's baroque.

pi@raspberrypidotnet:~ $ ps -eo size,pid,user,command --sort -size | awk '{ hr=$1/1024 ; printf("%13.2f Mb ",hr) } { for ( x=4 ; x<=NF ; x++ ) { printf("%s ",$x) } print "" }'
0.00 Mb COMMAND
161.14 Mb /usr/bin/dockerd -H fd://
124.20 Mb docker-containerd --config /var/run/docker/containerd/containerd.toml
78.23 Mb lxpanel --profile LXDE-pi
66.31 Mb /usr/lib/xorg/Xorg :0 -seat seat0 -auth /var/run/lightdm/root/:0 -nolisten tcp vt7 -novtswitch
61.66 Mb light-locker

Point is, there's choice. Here's a nice article about PowerShell from the perspective of a Linux user. Can I install PowerShell on my Raspberry Pi (or any Linux machine) and use the same scripts in both places? YES.

For many years PowerShell was a Windows-only thing that was part of the closed Windows ecosystem. In fact, here's video of me nearly 12 years ago (I was working in banking) talking to Jeffrey Snover about PowerShell. Today, PowerShell is open source up at https://github.com/PowerShell with lots of docs and scripts, also open source. PowerShell is supported on Windows, Mac, and a half-dozen Linuxes. Sound familiar? That's because it's powered (ahem) by open source cross platform .NET Core. You can get PowerShell Core 6.0 here on any platform.

Don't want to install it? Start it up in Docker in seconds with

docker run -it microsoft/powershell

Sweet. How about Raspbian on my ARMv7 based Raspberry Pi? I was running Raspbian Jessie and PowerShell is supported on Raspbian Stretch (newer) so I upgraded from Jesse to Stretch (and tidied up and did the firmware while I'm at it) with:

$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get upgrade
$ sudo apt-get dist-upgrade
$ sudo sed -i 's/jessie/stretch/g' /etc/apt/sources.list
$ sudo sed -i 's/jessie/stretch/g' /etc/apt/sources.list.d/raspi.list
$ sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get upgrade -y
$ sudo apt-get dist-upgrade -y
$ sudo rpi-update

Cool. Now I'm on Raspbian Stretch on my Raspberry Pi 3. Let's install PowerShell! These are just the most basic Getting Started instructions. Check out GitHub for advanced and detailed info if you have issues with prerequisites or paths.

NOTE: Here I'm getting PowerShell Core 6.0.2. Be sure to check the releases page for newer releases if you're reading this in the future. I've also used 6.1.0 (in preview) with success. The next 6.1 preview will upgrade to .NET Core 2.1. If you're just evaluating, get the latest preview as it'll have the most recent bug fixes.

$ sudo apt-get install libunwind8
$ wget https://github.com/PowerShell/PowerShell/releases/download/v6.0.2/powershell-6.0.2-linux-arm32.tar.gz
$ mkdir ~/powershell
$ tar -xvf ./powershell-6.0.2-linux-arm32.tar.gz -C ~/powershell
$ sudo ln -s ~/powershell/pwsh /usr/bin/pwsh
$ sudo ln -s ~/powershell/pwsh /usr/local/bin/powershell
$ powershell

Lovely.

GOTCHA: Because I upgraded from Jessie to Stretch, I ran into a bug where libssl1.0.0 is getting loaded over libssl1.0.2. This is a complex native issue with interaction between PowerShell and .NET Core 2.0 that's being fixed. Only upgraded machines like mind will it it, but it's easily fixed with sudo apt-get remove libssl1.0.0

Now this means my PowerShell build scripts can work on both Windows and Linux. This is a deeply trivial example (just one line) but note the "shebang" at the top that lets Linux know what a *.ps1 file is for. That means I can keep using bash/zsh/fish on Raspbian, but still "build.ps1" or "test.ps1" on any platform.

#!/usr/local/bin/powershell
dotnet watch --project .\hanselminutes.core.tests test /p:CollectCoverage=true /p:CoverletOutputFormat=lcov /p:CoverletOutput=./lcov

Here's a few totally random but lovely PowerShell examples:

PS /home/pi> Get-Date | Select-Object -Property * | ConvertTo-Json
{
"DisplayHint": 2,
"DateTime": "Sunday, May 20, 2018 5:55:35 AM",
"Date": "2018-05-20T00:00:00+00:00",
"Day": 20,
"DayOfWeek": 0,
"DayOfYear": 140,
"Hour": 5,
"Kind": 2,
"Millisecond": 502,
"Minute": 55,
"Month": 5,
"Second": 35,
"Ticks": 636623925355021162,
"TimeOfDay": {
"Ticks": 213355021162,
"Days": 0,
"Hours": 5,
"Milliseconds": 502,
"Minutes": 55,
"Seconds": 35,
"TotalDays": 0.24693868190046295,
"TotalHours": 5.9265283656111105,
"TotalMilliseconds": 21335502.1162,
"TotalMinutes": 355.59170193666665,
"TotalSeconds": 21335.502116199998
},
"Year": 2018
}

You can take PowerShell objects to and from Objects, Hashtables, JSON, etc.

PS /home/pi> $hash | ConvertTo-Json
{
"Shape": "Square",
"Color": "Blue",
"Number": 1
}
PS /home/pi> $hash = @{ Number = 1; Shape = "Square"; Color = "Blue"}
PS /home/pi> $hash

Name Value
---- -----
Shape Square
Color Blue
Number 1


PS /home/pi> $hash | ConvertTo-Json
{
"Shape": "Square",
"Color": "Blue",
"Number": 1
}

Here's a nice one from MCPMag:

PS /home/pi> $URI = "https://query.yahooapis.com/v1/public/yql?q=select  * from weather.forecast where woeid in (select woeid from geo.places(1) where  text='{0}, {1}')&format=json&env=store://datatables.org/alltableswithkeys"  -f 'Omaha','NE'
PS /home/pi> $Data = Invoke-RestMethod -Uri $URI
PS /home/pi> $Data.query.results.channel.item.forecast|Format-Table

code date day high low text
---- ---- --- ---- --- ----
39 20 May 2018 Sun 62 56 Scattered Showers
30 21 May 2018 Mon 78 53 Partly Cloudy
30 22 May 2018 Tue 88 61 Partly Cloudy
4 23 May 2018 Wed 89 67 Thunderstorms
4 24 May 2018 Thu 91 68 Thunderstorms
4 25 May 2018 Fri 92 69 Thunderstorms
34 26 May 2018 Sat 89 68 Mostly Sunny
34 27 May 2018 Sun 85 65 Mostly Sunny
30 28 May 2018 Mon 85 63 Partly Cloudy
47 29 May 2018 Tue 82 63 Scattered Thunderstorms

Or a one-liner if you want to be obnoxious.

PS /home/pi> (Invoke-RestMethod -Uri  "https://query.yahooapis.com/v1/public/yql?q=select  * from weather.forecast where woeid in (select woeid from geo.places(1) where  text='Omaha, NE')&format=json&env=store://datatables.org/alltableswithkeys").query.results.channel.item.forecast|Format-Table

Example: This won't work on Linux as it's using Windows specific AIPs, but if you've got PowerShell on your Windows machine, try out this one-liner for a cool demo:

iex (New-Object Net.WebClient).DownloadString("http://bit.ly/e0Mw9w")

Thoughts?


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About Scott

Scott Hanselman is a former professor, former Chief Architect in finance, now speaker, consultant, father, diabetic, and Microsoft employee. He is a failed stand-up comic, a cornrower, and a book author.

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Spend less time CD'ing around directories with the PowerShell Z shortcut

September 24, '17 Comments [18] Posted in PowerShell
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Everyone has a trick for moving around their computer faster. It might be a favorite shell, a series of aliases or shortcuts. I like using popd and pushd to quickly go deep into a directory structure and return exactly where I was.

Another fantastic utility is simply called "Z." There is a shell script for Z at https://github.com/rupa/z that's for *nix, and there's a PowerShell Z command (a fork of the original) at https://github.com/vincpa/z.

As you move around your machine at the command line, Z is adding the directories you usually visit to a file, then using that file to give you instant autocomplete so you can get back there FAST.

If you have Windows 10, you can install Z in seconds like this:

C:\> Install-Module z -AllowClobber

Then just add "Import-Module z" to the end of your Profile, usually at $env:USERPROFILE\Documents\WindowsPowerShell\Microsoft.PowerShell_profile.ps1

Even better, Z works with pushd, cd, or just "z c:\users\scott" if you like. All those directory changes and moves will be recorded it the Z datafile that is stored in ~\.cdHistory.

What do you think? Do you have a favorite way to move around your file system at the command line?


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About Scott

Scott Hanselman is a former professor, former Chief Architect in finance, now speaker, consultant, father, diabetic, and Microsoft employee. He is a failed stand-up comic, a cornrower, and a book author.

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Announcing PowerShell on Linux - PowerShell is Open Source!

August 18, '16 Comments [28] Posted in Open Source | PowerShell
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I started doing PowerShell almost 10 years ago. Check out this video from 2007 of me learning about PowerShell from Jeffrey Snover! I worked in PowerShell for many years and blogged extensively,  ultimately using PowerShell to script the automation and creation of a number of large systems in Retail Online Banks around the world.

Fast forward to today and Microsoft is announcing PowerShell on Linux powered by .NET Core and it's all open source and hosted at http://GitHub.com/PowerShell/PowerShell.

Holy crap PowerShell on Linux

Jeffrey Snover predicted internally in 2014 that PowerShell would eventually be open sourced but it was the advent of .NET Core and getting .NET Core working on multiple Linux distros that kickstarted the process. If you were paying attention it's possible you could have predicted this move yourself. Parts of PowerShell have been showing up as open source:

Get PowerShell everywhere

Ok, but where do you GET IT? http://microsoft.com/powershell is the homepage for PowerShell and everything can be found starting from there.

The PowerShell open source project is at https://github.com/PowerShell/PowerShell and there are alphas for Ubuntu 14.04/16.04, CentOS 7.1, and Mac OS X 10.11.

To be clear, I'm told this is are alpha quality builds as work continues with community support. An official Microsoft-supported "release" will come sometime later.

What's Possible?

This is my opinion and somewhat educated speculation, but it seems to me that they want to make it so you can manage anything from anywhere. Maybe you're a Unix person who has some Windows machines (either local or in Azure) that you need to manage. You can use PowerShell from Linux to do that. Maybe you've got some bash scripts at your company AND some PowerShell scripts. Use them both, interchangeably.

If you know PowerShell, you'll be able to use those skills on Linux as well. If you manage a hybrid environment, PowerShell isn't a replacement for bash but rather another tool in your toolkit. There are lots of shells (not just bash, zsh, but also ruby, python, etc) in the *nix world so PowerShell will be in excellent company.

PowerShell on Windows

Related Links

Be sure to check out the coverage from around the web and lots of blog posts from different perspectives!

Have fun! This open source thing is kind of catching on at Microsoft isn't it?


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About Scott

Scott Hanselman is a former professor, former Chief Architect in finance, now speaker, consultant, father, diabetic, and Microsoft employee. He is a failed stand-up comic, a cornrower, and a book author.

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Towards a better console - PSReadLine for PowerShell command line editing

September 25, '14 Comments [19] Posted in Open Source | PowerShell
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Sometimes textmode is where it's at. I've long blogged about tools and techniques that will make your Windows console experience better. Perhaps you're a *nix person who is using Windows in your day job, or you wish the Windows PowerShell prompt was more nix-y. Or perhaps you're a PowerShell person who wants to take your command-line to the next level.

Well, just as NuGet is how we get .NET libraries quickly, and Chocolately is a kind of apt-get for Windows, PsGet is a way to easily add PowerShell modules to your prompt.

To install PsGet you run this script (feel free to vet it):

(new-object Net.WebClient).DownloadString("http://psget.net/GetPsGet.ps1") | iex

Once you've got PsGet, the purpose of this post is to introduce you to PSReadLine.

To install PsReadLine with PsGet, just

install-module PsReadLine

If you want to install PsReadLine manually, you can from their readme. It does a LOT:

PsReadLine replaces the command line editing experience in PowerShell.exe. It provides:

  • Syntax coloring
  • Simple syntax error notification
  • A good multi-line experience (both editing and history)
  • Customizable key bindings
  • Cmd and emacs modes (neither are fully implemented yet, but both are usable)
  • Many configuration options
  • Bash style completion (optional in Cmd mode, default in Emacs mode)
  • Bash/zsh style interactive history search (CTRL-R)
  • Emacs yank/kill ring
  • PowerShell token based "word" movement and kill
  • Undo/redo
  • Automatic saving of history, including sharing history across live sessions
  • "Menu" completion (somewhat like Intellisense, select completion with arrows) via Ctrl+Space

But it doesn't replace it in a scary "moved my cheese" way, but in a comfortable familiar way, similar to how Bash works now. It will add things that you WILL miss when you move to another machine that doesn't have PsReadline. If you are already comfortable (or learning) PowerShell, this will feel comfortable immediately. It's not Dvorak. ;)

Some cool PsReadLine examples

Syntax coloring for things like keywords (cd) and common commands (git):

Syntax coloring with PSReadline

PowerShell often has you opening parentheses, brackets and things, and then you have to count them to close them. PsReadLine helps with that also:

Not only does it give you nice syntax-highlighting for things like function building, it also shows me with the red > that I haven't closed the block.

Forgot to close the block

When you are editing a multi-line script, you can also now backup to other lines!

multiline editing with PSReadline

If you are typing something like Get-Process and either want to autocomplete switches, or autocomplete results, you can press Ctrl-Space:

autocomplete

If you're advanced, check out get-PSReadlineKeyHandler and not only look at what functions are bound to which hotkeys, BUT also check out all the functions that AREN'T bound. You have a lot of power for customization here!

get-PSReadlineKeyHandler

You can even set Emacs keybindings!

Set-PSReadlineOption -EditMode Emacs

Go check out https://github.com/lzybkr/PSReadLine on GitHub and give it a star!

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About Scott

Scott Hanselman is a former professor, former Chief Architect in finance, now speaker, consultant, father, diabetic, and Microsoft employee. He is a failed stand-up comic, a cornrower, and a book author.

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CSI: Re-enabling Remote Desktop with PowerShell after you've blocked it with your own firewall rule

October 14, '13 Comments [8] Posted in Azure | PowerShell
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Got a great email from reader Seán McDonnell.

The Big Problem:

I set up an Azure virtual machine running Windows Server 2012.

I accidentally disabled the Remote Desktop Windows firewall rule (while I was remotely connected). The connection dropped as you would expect.

I have been pulling my hair out ever since trying to re-enable this rule.

Doh. Ouch. I didn't ask how this happened, but you know, one gets to clicking and typing and you can feel the mistake about to happen as your hand drops towards the keyboard, but by then it's too late. Gravity has screwed you.

I suggested that Seán use Remote Powershell to get in and add the enabling Firewall Rule for RDC. Remote PowerShell is like "SSH" in *nix. You get a remote terminal and can pretty much do whatever you want from there.

TL;DR version of Seán's experience.

  • Make sure PowerShell is enabled in the Endpoints section of the Azure portal.
  • Get the server's certificate (PowerShell needs this for remote commands). You can get the server certificate by going to your domains' URL: https://yourdomain.cloudapp.net:12345 (where :12345 is the port that PowerShell uses).
  • Export the SSL certificate of the site as a .CER file and install it on your local machine.
  • Save it to the "Trusted Root Certification Authorities" store on your machine.
  • Open PowerShell with administrative privileges on your local machine and type:
    Enter-PSSession -ComputerName yourdomain.cloudapp.net -Port 5986 -Credential YourUserName -UseSSL
  • A login popup will appear, enter your VM's login credentials here.
  • You will now be able to execute commands against the Azure VM. In Seán's case, he ran
    netsh advfirewall firewall set rule group="remote desktop" new enable=Yes
    and exited the PowerShell session and was able to remotely connect to my machine.

Long Detailed Version with Screenshots

Long version with screenshots:

Make sure PowerShell is publically accessible in the 'endpoints' section of the Azure portal.

 01 - VM Endpoints

Get the server's certificate (PowerShell needs this for establishing a remote session). You can get the server certificate by going to your domains' URL: https://yourdomain.cloudapp.net:5986 (where :5986 is the port that PowerShell uses).

 image

Go to the Details tab and click Copy to File...

 03 - Certificate Export

Leave the first option selected and save the file to a local drive. 

 04 - Certificate Export

05 - Certificate Export

Once the file is generated and saved locally, install the certificate by double clicking on the certificate-name.cer file.

 06 - Certificate Install

Install the certificate in the following store:

cert install

Open up PowerShell with administrative privileges and execute the following command (replacing the domain name and username with your own one):

 08 - Remote PowerShell Session

A logon credential popup should appear where you will need to enter your VM's username and password:

07 - Remote PowerShell Session

If successful, it should be pretty obvious that you have successfully initiated a remote session with the VM.

Enter-PSSession -ComputerName yourdomain.cloudapp.net -Port 5986 -Credential YourUserName -UseSSL

09 - Remote PowerShell Session Verification

To open re-enable the firewall rule you issue the command:

netsh advfirewall firewall set rule group="remote desktop" new enable=Yes  

 10 - Remote PowerShell Session Firewall Rule Update

The final step was to quit the PowerShell session and RDC to the VM. Success! 

I hope this write-up helps other people as well. Thanks Seán for a great question and for sharing the screenshot of your experience!


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About Scott

Scott Hanselman is a former professor, former Chief Architect in finance, now speaker, consultant, father, diabetic, and Microsoft employee. He is a failed stand-up comic, a cornrower, and a book author.

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Disclaimer: The opinions expressed herein are my own personal opinions and do not represent my employer's view in any way.