Scott Hanselman

Audit and Optimize your Windows 10 Search Indexing Options

May 2, '17 Comments [34] Posted in Win10
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I was getting frustrated with the speed (or lack of) of Windows Search within Windows 10 lately. I went over to my Indexing Options - just hit Start and type Indexing Options - and was surprised to see that there was over 1.5 MILLLION items indexed! That seems like a big number. Why so large?

I checked my "index these locations" list and didn't see anything weird, but I did note that Indexing does include c:\users\YOURNAME by default. That seems reasonable, because it is reasonable.

However, I also noted that I had a LOT of ".folders" (dot folders) under my C:\users\YOURNAME folder adding up to a few gigs of config text files, caches and general crap.

I was able to significantly lower the number of items indexed from over a million to a reasonable 215k items just by excluding (un-checking) folders that I knew didn't matter to me as much.

Go to Indexing Options and click Modify:

Indexing Options

Go to your C drive (or wherever ~\YOURNAME is) and go to your top level User folder. I unchecked a bunch of the stuff that didn't matter to me.

Indexing Location

For average users this won't matter, but for developers who install a bunch of utilities, have their Dropbox or OneDrive in the c:\users folder, a 5 min audit of your indexed files can give your Indexed Files a nice refresh.


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About Scott

Scott Hanselman is a former professor, former Chief Architect in finance, now speaker, consultant, father, diabetic, and Microsoft employee. He is a failed stand-up comic, a cornrower, and a book author.

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Setting up a Shiny Development Environment within Linux on Windows 10

April 13, '17 Comments [49] Posted in Linux | Win10
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While I was getting Ruby on Rails to work nicely under Ubuntu on Windows 10 I took the opportunity to set up my *nix bash environment, which was largely using defaults. Yes, I know I can use zsh or fish or other shells. Yes, I know I can use emacs and screen, but I am using Vim and tmux. Fight me. Anyway, once my post was done, I starting messing around with open source .NET Core on Linux (it runs on Windows, Mac, and Linux, but here I'm running on Linux on Windows. #Inception) and tweeted a pic of my desktop.

By the way, I feel totally vindicated by all the interest in "text mode" given my 2004 blog post "Windows is completely missing the TextMode boat." ;)'

Also, for those of you who are DEEPLY NOT INTERESTED in the command line, that's cool. You can stop reading now. Totally OK. I also use Visual Studio AND Visual Studio Code. Sometimes I click and mouse and sometimes I tap and type. There is room for us all.

WHAT IS ALL THIS LINUX ON WINDOWS STUFF? Here's a FAQ on the Bash/Windows Subsystem for Linux/Ubuntu on Windows/Snowball in Hell and some detailed Release Notes. Yes, it's real, and it's spectacular. Can't read that much text? Here's a video I did on Ubuntu on Windows 10.

A number of people asked me how they could set up their WSL (Windows Subsystem for Linux) installs to be something like this, so here's what I did. Note that will I've been using *nix on and off for 20+ years, I am by no means an expert. I am, and have been, Permanently Intermediate in my skills. I do not dream in RegEx, and I am offended that others can bust out an awk script without googling.

C9RT5_bUwAALJ-H

So there's a few things going on in this screenshot.

  • Running .NET Core on Linux (on Windows 10)
  • Cool VIM theme with >256 colors
  • Norton Midnight Commander in the corner (thanks Miguel)
  • Desqview-esque tmux splitter (with mouse support)
  • Some hotkey remapping, git prompt, completion
  • Ubuntu Mono font
  • Nice directory colors (DIRCOLORS/LS_COLORS)

Let's break them down one at a time. And, again, your mileage may vary, no warranty express or implied, any of this may destroy your world, you read this on a blog. Linux is infinitely configurable and the only constant is that my configuration rocks and yours sucks. Until I see something in yours that I can steal.

Running .NET Core on Linux (on Windows 10)

Since Linux on Windows 10 is (today) Ubuntu, you can install .NET Core within it just like any Linux. Here's the Ubuntu instructions for .NET Core's SDK. You may have Ubuntu 14.04 or 16.04 (you can upgrade your Linux on Windows if you like). Make sure you know what you're running by doing a:

~ $ lsb_release -a
No LSB modules are available.
Distributor ID: Ubuntu
Description: Ubuntu 16.04.2 LTS
Release: 16.04
Codename: xenial
~ $

If you're not on 16.04 you can easily remove and reinstall the whole subsystem with these commands at cmd.exe (note the /full is serious and torches the Linux filesystem):

> lxrun /uninstall /full
> lxrun /install

Or if you want you can run this within bash (will take longer but maintain settings).

NOTE that you'll need Windows 10 Creators Edition build 16163 or greater to run Ubuntu 16.04. Type "winver" to check your build.

sudo do-release-upgrade

Know what Ubuntu your Windows 10 has when you install .NET Core within it. The other thing to remember is that now you have two .NET Cores, one Windows and one Ubuntu, on the same (kinda) machine. Since the file systems are separated it's not a big deal. I do my development work within Ubuntu on /mnt/d/github (which is a Windows drive). It's OK for the Linux subsystem to edit files in Linux or Windows, but don't "reach into" the Linux file system from Windows.

Cool Vim theme with >256 colors

That Vim theme is gruvbox and I installed it like this. Thanks to Rich Turner for turning me on to this theme.

$ cd ~/
$ mkdir .vim
$ cd .vim
$ mkdir colors
$ cd colors
$ curl -O https://raw.githubusercontent.com/morhetz/gruvbox/master/colors/gruvbox.vim
$ cd ~/
$ vim .vimrc

Paste the following (hit ‘i’ for insert and then right click/paste)

set number
syntax enable
set background=dark
colorscheme gruvbox
set mouse=a

if &term =~ '256color'
" disable Background Color Erase (BCE) so that color schemes
" render properly when inside 256-color tmux and GNU screen.
" see also http://snk.tuxfamily.org/log/vim-256color-bce.html
set t_ut=
endif

Then save and exit with Esc, :wq (write and quit). There's a ton of themes out there, so try some for yourself!

Norton Midnight Commander in the corner (thanks Miguel)

Midnight Commander is a wonderful Norton Commander clone that Miguel de Icaza started, that's licensed as part of GNU. I installed it via apt, as I would any Ubuntu software.

$ sudo apt-get install mc

There's mouse support within the Windows conhost (console host) that bash runs within, so you'll even get mouse support within Midnight Commander!

Midnight Commander

Great stuff.

Desqview-esque tmux splitter (with mouse support)

Tmux is a terminal multiplexer. It's a text-mode windowing environment within which you can run multiple programs. Even better, you can "detach" from a running session and reattached from elsewhere. Because of this, folks love using tmux on servers where they can ssh in, set up an environment, detach, and reattach from elsewhere.

NOTE: The Windows Subsystem for Linux shuts down all background processes when the last console exits. So you can detach and attach tmux sessions happily, but just make sure you don't close every console on your machine.

Here's a nice animated gif of me moving the splitter on tmux on Windows. YES I KNOW YOU CAN USE THE KEYBOARD BUT THIS GIF IS COOL.

Some hotkey remapping, git prompt, completion

I am still learning tmux but here's my .tmux.conf. I've made a few common changes to make the hotkey creation of windows easier.

#remap prefix from 'C-b' to 'C-a'
unbind C-b
set-option -g prefix C-a
bind-key C-a send-prefix

# split panes using | and -
bind | split-window -h
bind _ split-window -v
unbind '"'
unbind %
bind k confirm kill-window
bind K confirm kill-server
bind < resize-pane -L 1
bind > resize-pane -R 1
bind - resize-pane -D 1
bind + resize-pane -U 1
bind r source-file ~/.tmux.conf

# switch panes using Alt-arrow without prefix
bind -n M-Left select-pane -L
bind -n M-Right select-pane -R
bind -n M-Up select-pane -U
bind -n M-Down select-pane -D

# Enable mouse control (clickable windows, panes, resizable panes)
set -g mouse on
set -g default-terminal "screen-256color"

I'm using the default Ubuntu .bashrc that includes a check for dircolors (more on this below) but I added this for git-completion.sh and a git prompt, as well as these two alias. I like being able to type "desktop" to jump to my Windows Desktop. And the -x on Midnight Commander helps the mouse support.

alias desktop="cd /mnt/c/Users/scott/Desktop"
alias mc="mc -x"
export CLICOLOR=1
source ~/.git-completion.sh
PS1='\[\033[37m\]\W\[\033[0m\]$(__git_ps1 " (\[\033[35m\]%s\[\033[0m\])") \$ '
GIT_PS1_SHOWDIRTYSTATE=1
GIT_PS1_SHOWSTASHSTATE=1
GIT_PS1_SHOWUNTRACKEDFILES=1
GIT_PS1_SHOWUPSTREAM="auto"

Git Completion can be installed with:

sudo apt-get install git bash-completion

Ubuntu Mono font

I really like the Ubuntu Mono font, and I like the way it looks when running Ubuntu under Windows. You can download the Ubuntu Font Family free. Right click the downloaded TTF files and right click and "Install," or drag them into C:\windows\fonts. Then click the upper left corner of any Bash console window and change your font to Ubuntu Mono.

Ubuntu Mono

Nice directory colors (DIRCOLORS/LS_COLORS)'

If you have a black command prompt background, then default colors for directories will be dark blue on black, which sucks. Fortunately you can get .dircolors files from all over the wep, or set the LS_COLORS (make sure to search for LS_COLORS for Linux, not the other, different LSCOLORS on Mac) environment variable.

I ended up with "dircolors-solarized" from here, downloaded it with wget or curl and put it in ~. Then confirm this is in your .bashrc (it likely is already)

# enable color support of ls and also add handy aliases
if [ -x /usr/bin/dircolors ]; then
test -r ~/.dircolors && eval "$(dircolors -b ~/.dircolors)" || eval "$(dircolors -b)"
alias ls='ls --color=auto'
alias dir='dir --color=auto'
#alias vdir='vdir --color=auto'

alias grep='grep --color=auto'
alias fgrep='fgrep --color=auto'
alias egrep='egrep --color=auto'
fi

Download whatever .dircolors file makes you happy (make sure the filename ends up as ".dircolors," so you may need to cp yoursourcefile ~/.dircolors and then restart your console.

Make a big difference for me, and as I mention, it's totally, gloriously, maddeningly configurable.

Nice dircolors

Leave YOUR Linux on Windows tips in the comments!


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About Scott

Scott Hanselman is a former professor, former Chief Architect in finance, now speaker, consultant, father, diabetic, and Microsoft employee. He is a failed stand-up comic, a cornrower, and a book author.

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Writing and debugging Linux C++ applications from Visual Studio using the "Windows Subsystem for Linux"

April 3, '17 Comments [19] Posted in Linux | Open Source | Win10
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I've blogged about the "Windows Subsystem for Linux" (also known as "Bash on Ubuntu on Windows") many times before. Response to this Windows feature has been a little funny because folks try to:

  • Minimize it - "Oh, it's just Cygwin." (It's actually not, it's the actual Ubuntu elf binaries running on a layer that abstracts the Linux kernel.)
  • Design it - "So it's a docker container? A VM?" (Again, it's a whole subsystem. It does WAY more than you'd think, and it's FASTer than a VM.)

Here's a simple explanation from Andrew Pardoe:

1. The developer/user uses a bash shell.
2. The bash shell runs on an install of Ubuntu
3. The Ubuntu install runs on a Windows subsystem. This subsystem is designed to support Linux.

It's pretty cool. WSL has, frankly, kept me running Windows because I can run cmd, powershell, OR bash (or zsh or Fish). You can run vim, emacs, tmux, and run Javascript/node.js, Ruby, Python, C/C++, C# & F#, Rust, Go, and more. You can also now run sshd, MySQL, Apache, lighttpd as long as you know that when you close your last console the background services will shut down. Bash on Windows is for developers, not background server apps. And of course, you apt-get your way to glory.

Bash on Windows runs Ubuntu user-mode binaries provided by Canonical. This means the command-line utilities are the same as those that run within a native Ubuntu environment.

I wanted to write a Linux Console app in C++ using Visual Studio in Windows. Why? Why not? I like VS.

Setting up Visual Studio 2017 to compile and debug C++ apps on Linux

Then, from the bash shell make sure you have build-essential, gdb's server, and openssh's server:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install -y build-essential
$ sudo apt install -y gdbserver
$ sudo apt install -y openssh-server

Then open up /etc/ssh/sshd_config with vi (or nano) like

sudo nano /etc/ssh/sshd_config

and for simplicity's sake, set PasswordAuthentication to yes. Remember that it's not as big a security issue as you'd think as the SSHD daemon closes when your last console does, and because WSL's subsystem has to play well with Windows, it's privy to the Windows Firewall and all its existing rules, plus we're talking localhost also.

Now generate SSH keys and manually start the service:

$ sudo ssh-keygen -A
$ sudo service ssh start

Create a Linux app in Visual Studio (or open a Makefile app):

File | New Project | Cross Platform | Linux

Make sure you know your target (x64, x86, ARM):

Remote GDB Debugger options

In Visual Studio's Cross Platform Connection Manager you can control your SSH connections (and set up ones with private keys, if you like.)

Tools | Options | Cross Platfrom | Connection Manager

Boom. I'm writing C++ for Linux in Visual Studio on Windows...running, compiling and debugging on the local Linux Subsystem

I'm writing C++ in Visual Studio on Windows talking to the local Linux Subsystem

BTW, for those of you, like me, who love your Raspberry Pi tiny Linux computers...this is a great way to write C++ for those little devices as well. There's even a Blink example in File | New Project to start.

Also, for those of you who are very advanced, stop using Mingw-w64 and do cool stuff like compiling gcc 6.3 from source under WSL and having VS use that! I didn't realize that Visual Studio's C++ support lets you choose between a number of C++ compilers including both GCC and Clang.


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About Scott

Scott Hanselman is a former professor, former Chief Architect in finance, now speaker, consultant, father, diabetic, and Microsoft employee. He is a failed stand-up comic, a cornrower, and a book author.

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Temporary Fix: Logitech BRIO Camera broken on Windows 10 Insiders 15042

February 25, '17 Comments [10] Posted in Bugs | Win10
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I just updated my Windows 10 to Insiders Fast Build 15042, and suddenly my glorious new Logitech BRIO 4k webcam doesn't work! Well, it's all beta software, but it turns out the issue is with something in the Logitech INF files for their drivers. I'm assuming they'll figure it out, but the nutshell is that the first install works, but the driver gets messed up on the upgrade. You can't just pull out the camera and put it in again, you need to DELETE the drivers and have them redownloaded by Windows Update/Device Manager.

Here's a temporary fix (either until Logitech fixes it and it shows up in Windows Update or you take another Windows 10 upgrade):

Logitech BRIO stops working on Windows 10 Insiders UPGRADE

Go to device manager and right click the device and Uninstall Driver. If it has the checkbox "Delete this driver" then check it. That's required. IF (like me) you don't have that checkbox (I'm not sure why I don't) then you'll need to delete the Logitech driver from the DriverStore. You can do it manually but it's tricky and messy and hard.

We need to delete this driver so it gets reinstalled cleanly.

Driver 2/31/2017

Unplug your webcam. Then, go get the latest copy of DriverStoreExplorer from here https://github.com/lostindark/DriverStoreExplorer/releases and delete JUST this one driver.

Using the Driver Store Explorer

Now, go back to Device Manager and plug in your Logitech BRIO webcam. Note you'll get some super old 2006 driver. Right click the BRIO in Imaging Devices and Update Driver. This will get you BACK to your original state. You still have a driver that will break when you next take a "major" Windows update or Insiders Build, but at least you have a solution until it magically gets fixed.

Yay!


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About Scott

Scott Hanselman is a former professor, former Chief Architect in finance, now speaker, consultant, father, diabetic, and Microsoft employee. He is a failed stand-up comic, a cornrower, and a book author.

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WinAppDriver - Test any app with Appium's Selenium-like tests on Windows

November 16, '16 Comments [12] Posted in Open Source | Win10
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WinAppDriver - Appium testing Windows Apps

I've found blog posts on my site where I'm using the Selenium Web Testing Framework as far back as 2007! Today there's Selenium Drivers for every web browser including Microsoft Edge. You can write Selenium tests in nearly any language these days including Ruby, Python, Java, and C#.

I'm a big Selenium fan. I like using it with systems like BrowserStack to automate across many different browser on many operating systems.

"Appium" is a great Selenium-like testing framework that implements the "WebDriver" protocol - formerly JsonWireProtocol.

WebDriver is a remote control interface that enables introspection and control of user agents. It provides a platform- and language-neutral wire protocol as a way for out-of-process programs to remotely instruct the behavior of web browsers.

From the Appium website, "Appium is 'cross-platform': it allows you to write tests against multiple platforms (iOS, Android, Windows), using the same API. This enables code reuse between iOS, Android, and Windows testsuites"

Appium is a webserver that exposes a REST API. The WinAppDriver enables Appium by using new APIs that were added in Windows 10 Anniversary Edition that allow you to test any Windows app. That means ANY Windows App. Win32, VB6, WPF, UWP, anything. Not only can you put any app in the Windows Store, you can do full and complete UI testing of those apps with a tool that is already familiar to Web Developers like myself.

Your preferred language, your preferred test runner, the Appium Server, and your app

You can write tests in C# and run them from Visual Studio's Test Runner. You can press any button and basically totally control your apps.

// Launch the calculator app
DesiredCapabilities appCapabilities = new DesiredCapabilities();
appCapabilities.SetCapability("app", "Microsoft.WindowsCalculator_8wekyb3d8bbwe!App");
CalculatorSession = new RemoteWebDriver(new Uri(WindowsApplicationDriverUrl), appCapabilities);
Assert.IsNotNull(CalculatorSession);
CalculatorSession.Manage().Timeouts().ImplicitlyWait(TimeSpan.FromSeconds(2));
// Make sure we're in standard mode
CalculatorSession.FindElementByXPath("//Button[starts-with(@Name, \"Menu\")]").Click();
OriginalCalculatorMode = CalculatorSession.FindElementByXPath("//List[@AutomationId=\"FlyoutNav\"]//ListItem[@IsSelected=\"True\"]").Text;
CalculatorSession.FindElementByXPath("//ListItem[@Name=\"Standard Calculator\"]").Click();

It's surprisingly easy once you get started.

public void Addition()
{
CalculatorSession.FindElementByName("One").Click();
CalculatorSession.FindElementByName("Plus").Click();
CalculatorSession.FindElementByName("Seven").Click();
CalculatorSession.FindElementByName("Equals").Click();
Assert.AreEqual("Display is 8 ", CalculatorResult.Text);
}

You can automate any part of Windows, even the Start Menu or Cortana.

var searchBox = CortanaSession.FindElementByAccessibilityId("SearchTextBox");
Assert.IsNotNull(searchBox);
searchBox.SendKeys("What is eight times eleven");

var bingPane = CortanaSession.FindElementByName("Bing");
Assert.IsNotNull(bingPane);

var bingResult = bingPane.FindElementByName("88");
Assert.IsNotNull(bingResult);

If you use "AccessibiltyIds" and refer to native controls in a non-locale specific way you can even reuse test code across platforms. For example, you could write sign in code for Windows, iOS, your web app, and even a VB6 Win32 app. ;)

Testing a VB6 app with WinAppDriver

Appium and WebAppDriver a nice alternative to "CodedUI Tests." CodedUI tests are great but just for Windows apps. If you're a web developer or you are writing cross platform or mobile apps you should check it out.


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About Scott

Scott Hanselman is a former professor, former Chief Architect in finance, now speaker, consultant, father, diabetic, and Microsoft employee. He is a failed stand-up comic, a cornrower, and a book author.

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Disclaimer: The opinions expressed herein are my own personal opinions and do not represent my employer's view in any way.