Scott Hanselman

Now is the time to make a fresh new Windows Terminal profiles.json

October 3, '19 Comments [14] Posted in Open Source | Win10
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I've been talking about it for months, but in case you haven't heard, there's a new Windows Terminal in town. You can download it and start using it now from the Windows Store. It's free and open source.

At the time of this writing, Windows Terminal is around version 0.5. It's not officially released as a 1.0 so things are changing all the time.

Here's your todo - Have you installed the Windows Terminal before? Have you customize your profile.json file? If so, I want you to DELETE your profiles.json!

Your profiles.json is somewhere like C:\Users\USERNAME\AppData\Local\Packages\Microsoft.WindowsTerminal_8wekyb3d8bbwe\LocalState but you can get to it from the drop down in the Windows Terminal like this:

Windows Terminal dropdown

When you hit Settings, Windows Terminal will launch whatever app is registered to handle JSON files. In my case, I'm using Visual Studio Code.

I have done a lot of customization on my profiles.json, so before I delete or "zero out" my profiles.json I will save a copy somewhere. You should to!

You can just "ctrl-a" and delete all of your profiles.json when it's open and Windows Terminal 0.5 or greater will recreate it from scratch by detecting the shells you have. Remember, a Console or Terminal isn't a Shell!

Note the new profiles.json also includes another tip! You can hold ALT- and click settings to see the default settings! This new profiles.json is simpler to read and understand because there's an inherited default.


// To view the default settings, hold "alt" while clicking on the "Settings" button.
// For documentation on these settings, see: https://aka.ms/terminal-documentation

{
"$schema": "https://aka.ms/terminal-profiles-schema",

"defaultProfile": "{61c54bbd-c2c6-5271-96e7-009a87ff44bf}",

"profiles":
[
{
// Make changes here to the powershell.exe profile
"guid": "{61c54bbd-c2c6-5271-96e7-009a87ff44bf}",
"name": "Windows PowerShell",
"commandline": "powershell.exe",
"hidden": false
},
{
// Make changes here to the cmd.exe profile
"guid": "{0caa0dad-35be-5f56-a8ff-afceeeaa6101}",
"name": "cmd",
"commandline": "cmd.exe",
"hidden": false
},
{
"guid": "{574e775e-4f2a-5b96-ac1e-a2962a402336}",
"hidden": false,
"name": "PowerShell Core",
"source": "Windows.Terminal.PowershellCore"
},
...

You'll notice there's a new $schema that gives you dropdown Intellisense so you can autocomplete properties and their values now! Check out the Windows Terminal Documentation here https://aka.ms/terminal-documentation and the complete list of things you can do in your profiles.json is here.

I've made these changes to my Profile.json.

Split panes

I've added "requestedTheme" and changed it to dark, to get a black titleBar with tabs.

requestedTheme = dark

I also wanted to test the new (not even close to done) splitscreen features, that give you a simplistic tmux style of window panes, without any other software.

// Add any keybinding overrides to this array.
// To unbind a default keybinding, set the command to "unbound"
"keybindings": [
{ "command": "closeWindow", "keys": ["alt+f4"] },
{ "command": "splitHorizontal", "keys": ["ctrl+-"]},
{ "command": "splitVertical", "keys": ["ctrl+\\"]}
]

Then I added an Ubuntu specific color scheme, named UbuntuLegit.

// Add custom color schemes to this array
"schemes": [
{
"background" : "#2C001E",
"black" : "#4E9A06",
"blue" : "#3465A4",
"brightBlack" : "#555753",
"brightBlue" : "#729FCF",
"brightCyan" : "#34E2E2",
"brightGreen" : "#8AE234",
"brightPurple" : "#AD7FA8",
"brightRed" : "#EF2929",
"brightWhite" : "#EEEEEE",
"brightYellow" : "#FCE94F",
"cyan" : "#06989A",
"foreground" : "#EEEEEE",
"green" : "#300A24",
"name" : "UbuntuLegit",
"purple" : "#75507B",
"red" : "#CC0000",
"white" : "#D3D7CF",
"yellow" : "#C4A000"
}
],

And finally, I added a custom command prompt that runs Mono's x86 developer prompt.

{
"guid": "{b463ae62-4e3d-5e58-b989-0a998ec441b8}",
"hidden": false,
"name": "Mono",
"fontFace": "DelugiaCode NF",
"fontSize": 16,
"commandline": "C://Windows//SysWOW64//cmd.exe /k \"C://Program Files (x86)//Mono//bin//setmonopath.bat\"",
"icon": "c://Users//scott//Dropbox//mono.png"
}

Note I'm using forward slashes an double escaping them, as well as backslash escaping quotes.

Save your profiles.json away somewhere, make sure your Terminal is updated, then delete it or empty it and you'll likely get some new "free" shells that the Terminal will detect, then you can copy in just the few customizations you want.


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About Scott

Scott Hanselman is a former professor, former Chief Architect in finance, now speaker, consultant, father, diabetic, and Microsoft employee. He is a failed stand-up comic, a cornrower, and a book author.

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Announcing free C#, .NET, and ASP.NET for beginners video courses and tutorials

September 24, '19 Comments [14] Posted in DotNetCore | Learning .NET | Open Source
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If you've been thinking about learning C#, now is the time to jump in! I've been working on this project for months and I'm happy to announce http://dot.net/videos 

There's nearly a hundred short videos (with more to come!) that will teach you topics like C# 101, .NET, making desktop apps, making ASP.NET web apps, learning containers and Dockers, or even starting with Machine Learning. There's a ton of great, slow-paced beginner videos. Most are less than 10 minutes long and all are organized into Playlists on YouTube!

If you are getting started, I'd recommend starting with these three series in this order - C#, .NET, then ASP.NET. After that, pick the topics that make you the happiest.

Lots of .NET learning videos and tutorials up on YouTube, free!

If you don't have access to YouTube where you are, all these videos are also on Channel 9 *and* can be downloaded locally via RSS feed! https://channel9.msdn.com/Browse/Series

Lots of .NET learning videos and tutorials up on YouTube, free!

If you like these, let me know what other topics you'd like us to cover! We are just getting started and already have intermediate and advanced C# classes in the works!


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About Scott

Scott Hanselman is a former professor, former Chief Architect in finance, now speaker, consultant, father, diabetic, and Microsoft employee. He is a failed stand-up comic, a cornrower, and a book author.

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What's the difference between a console, a terminal, and a shell?

September 20, '19 Comments [14] Posted in Linux | Open Source | Win10
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I see a lot of questions that are close but the questions themselves show an underlying misunderstanding of some important terms.

  • Why would I use Windows Terminal over PowerShell?
  • I don't need WSL for bash, I use Cygwin.
  • Can I use conemu with PowerShell Core or do I need to use Windows Terminal?

Let's start with a glossary and clarify some words first.

Terminal

The word Terminal comes from terminate, indicating that it's the terminating end or "terminal" end of a communications process. You'll often hear "dumb terminal" when referring to a text-based environment where the computer you are sitting next to is just taking input and showing text while the real work happens at the other end in a mainframe or large computer.

TTY or "teletypewriter" was the first kind of terminal. Rather than a screen you'd have a literal typewriter in front of you. When you type on it, you're seeing the text on a piece of paper AND inputing that text into a computer. When that computer replies, you'll see the typewriter automatically type on the same paper.

Photo by Texas.713 used under CC

When we refer to a Terminal in the software sense, we're referring to a literal software version of a TTY or Terminal. The Windows Terminal is that. It's really good at displaying textual output. It can take input and pass it on. But the Terminal isn't smart. It doesn't actually process your input, it doesn't look at your files or think.

Console

Folks in the mid 20th century would have a piece of furniture in their living room called a console or console cabinet. A Console in the context of computers is a console or cabinet with a screen and keyboard combined inside it. But, it's effectively a Terminal. Technically the Console is the device and the Terminal is now the software program inside the Console.

image

In the software world a Terminal and a Console are, for all intents, synonymous.

Shell

A shell is the program that the terminal sends user input to. The shell generates output and passes it back to the terminal for display. Here's some examples of Shells:

  • bash, fish, zsh, ksh, sh, tsch
  • PowerShell, pwsh
  • cygwin
  • cmd, yori, 4dos, command.com

Here's an important point that should make more sense now that you have these terminals - Your choice of shell doesn't and shouldn't dictate your choice of terminal application.

Aside: WSL and WSL2 (the Windows Subsystem for Linux) are a complete local Linux (or many Linuxes) that run on Windows 10. They are full and real. WSL2 ships a real Linux kernel and runs in on Windows. Cygwin is NOT a Linux. Cygwin is a large collection of GNU and Open Source tools which provide functionality similar to Linux on Windows - but it is not Linux. It's a simulacrum. It's GNU utils compiled against Win32. It's great, but it's important for you to know what the difference is. Cygwin may let you run your shell scripts but it will NOT run Apache, Docker, or other real ELF-binaries and Linux apps.

Your Choice of Windows Consoles?

There are a number of shells that ship with Windows. Here's a few I'm running now. Note the "chrome" or the border and title around them? Those shells are all hosted by a the legacy Windows console you have never heard of called conhost.exe. You can go to the command prompt, type powershell, cmd, or ubuntu and any number of shells will run. Conhost does the work of input and output.

Now, forget that conhost exists, because it sucks - it's super old.

Shells that come with Windows

Pseudo Console, Pseudo Terminal, PTY, Pseudo TTY (ConPTY)

Pseudo Terminals are terminal emulators or software interfaces that emulate terminals. They pretend to be terminals like the ones above. *Nix systems have long had a pseudo-terminal (PTY) infrastructure and now Windows as a pseudoconsole (ConPTY) as well.

Window's new ConPTY interface is the future of consoles and terminals on Windows. If you choose a 3rd party (non-built-in) console applications for Windows, make sure it supports ConPTY and it'll be a better experience than some of the older consoles that use screen scraping or other hacks.

image

Back to your choice of Windows Consoles

Remembering there's a lot of shells you can use in Windows, there's a lot of 3rd party consoles you can use if you don't like conhost.exe (and you shouldn't).

All of these Terminals support ALL the shells above and any shells I've missed. Because a shell isn't a terminal. Pick the one that makes you happy. I use PowerShell Core and Ubuntu in WSL2 in the Windows Terminal.

Windows Terminal

Hope this helps clear things up.


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About Scott

Scott Hanselman is a former professor, former Chief Architect in finance, now speaker, consultant, father, diabetic, and Microsoft employee. He is a failed stand-up comic, a cornrower, and a book author.

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Emulating a PlayStation 1 (PSX) entirely with C# and .NET

September 12, '19 Comments [15] Posted in Gaming | Open Source
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I was reading an older post in an emulator forum where someone was asking for a Playstation 1 (PSX) emulator written in C#, and the replies went on and on about how C# and .NET are not suited for emulation, C# is far too slow, negativity, blah blah.

Of course, that's silly. Good C# can run at near-native speed given all the work happening in the runtime/JITter, etc.

I then stumbled on this very early version of a PSX Emulator in C#. Now, if you were to theoretically have a Playtation SCPH1001.BIN BIOS and then physically owned a Playstation (as I do) and then created a BIN file from your physical copy of Crash Bandicoot, you could happily run it as you can see in the screenshot below.

Crash Bandicoot on a C#-based PSX Emulator

This project is very early days, as the author points out, but I was able to Git Clone and directly open the code in Visual Studio 2019 Community (which is free) and run it immediately. Note that as of the time of this blog post, the BIOS location *and* BIN files are hardcoded in the CD.cs and BUS.cs files. I named the BIN file "somegame.bin."

PSX Emualtor in C# inside Visual Studio

A funny note, since the code is unbounded as it currently sits, while I get about 30fps in Debug mode, in Release mode the ProjectPSX Emulator runs at over 120fps on my system, emulating a PlayStation 1 at over 220% of the usual CPU speed!

Just to make sure there's no confusion, and to support the author I want to repeat this question and answer here:

Can i use this emulator to play?

"Yes you can, but you shouldn't. There are a lot of other more capable emulators out there. This is a work in progress personal project with the aim to learn about emulators and hardware implementation. It can and will break during emulation as there are a lot of unimplemented hardware features."

This is a great codebase to learn from and read - maybe even support with your own Issues and PRs if the author is willing, but as they point out, it's neither complete nor ready for consumption.

Again, from the author who has other interesting emulators you can read:

I started doing a Java Chip8 and a C# Intel 8080 CPU (used on the classic arcade Space Invaders). Some later i did Nintendo Gameboy. I wanted to keep forward to do some 3D so i ended with the PSX as it had a good library of games...

Very cool stuff! Reading emulator code is a great way to not only learn about a specific language but also to learn 'the full stack.' We often hear Full Stack in the context of a complete distributed web application, but for many the stack goes down to the metal. This emulator literally boots up from the real BIOS of a Playstation and emulates the MIPS R3000A, a BUS to connect components, the CPU, the CD-ROM, and display.

An emulator has to lie at every step so that when an instruction is reached it can make everyone involved truly believe they are really running on a Playstation. If it does its job, no one suspects! That's why it's so interesting.

You can also press TAB to see the VRAM visualized as well as textures and color lookup tables which is super interesting!

Visualizing VRAM

One day, some day, there will be no physical hardware in existence for some of these old/classic consoles. Even today, lots of people play games for NES and SNES on a Nintendo Switch and may never see or touch the original hardware. It's important to support emulation development and sites like archive.org with Donations to make sure that history is preserved!

NOTE: It's also worth pointing out that it took me about 15 minutes to port this from .NET Framework 4.7.2 to .NET Core 3.0. More on this, perhaps, in another post. I'll also do a benchmark and see if it's faster.

I encourage you to go give a Github Star to ProjectPSX and enjoy reading this interesting bit of code. You can also read about the PSX Hardware written by Martin Korth for a trove of knowledge.


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About Scott

Scott Hanselman is a former professor, former Chief Architect in finance, now speaker, consultant, father, diabetic, and Microsoft employee. He is a failed stand-up comic, a cornrower, and a book author.

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How to fix dfu-util, STM, WinUSB, Zadig, Bootloaders and other Firmware Flashing issues on Windows

September 11, '19 Comments [2] Posted in Hardware | Open Source
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Flashing devices wtih dfu-utilI'm pretty happy with Windows 10 as my primary development box. It can do most anything I want, run a half-dozen Linuxes, and has a shiny new open source Terminal, and has great support for Docker now.

However.

For years - YEARS I SAY - Windows has been a huge hassle when you want to flash the firmware of various devices over USB.

The term "dfu" means Device Firmware Update and dfu-util is the Device Firmware Update Utility, natch.

Very often I'll find myself with a device like a Particle Photon, Wilderness Labs Meadow, or some STM32 device that uses the ST Bootloader.

The Mac and Linux instructions usually say something like "plug it in and party on" but folks like myself with Windows have to set up a WinUSB Driver (libusb-win32 or libusbK) as dfu-util uses those libraries to speak to USB devices.

If you plug in a device, the vast majority of Windows users want the device to 'just work.' My non-technical parent doesn't want Generic USB drivers so they can flash the firmware on their mouse. I, however, as an aristocrat, sometimes want to do low-level stuff and flash an OS on a Microcontroller.

Today, the easiest way to swap the "inbox" driver with WinUSB is using a utility called Zadig. Per their docs:

Zadig is a Windows application that installs generic USB drivers,
such as WinUSB, libusb-win32/libusb0.sys or libusbK, to help you access USB devices.

It can be especially useful for cases where:

  • you want to access a device using a libusb-based application
  • you want to upgrade a generic USB driver
  • you want to access a device using WinUSB

If you follow the instructions when flashing a device and don't have the right USB driver installed you'll likely get an error like this:

Cannot open DFU device 0483:df11

That's not a lot to go on. The issue is that the default "inbox" driver that Windows uses for devices like this isn't set up for Generic USB access with libraries like "libusb."

Install a generic USB driver for your device - WinUSB using Zadig

Run Zadig and click Options | List All Devices.

Here you can see me finding the ST device within Zadig and replacing the driver with WinUSB. In my case the device was listened under STM32 Bootloader. Be aware that you can mess up your system if you select something like your WebCam instead of the hardware device you mean to select.

In Zadig, select the STM32 Bootloader

In this state, you can see in the Device Manager that there's an "STM Device in DFU Mode."

STM Device in DFU Mode

Now I run Zadig and replace the driver with WinUSB. Here's the result. Note the SUCCESS and the changed Driver on the left.

Replace it with WinUSB

Here the STM32 Bootloader device now exists in Universal Serial Bus Devices in Device Manager.

STM32 Bootloader

Now I can run dfu-util --list again. Note the before and after in the screenshot below. I run dfu-util --list and it finds nothing. I replace the bootloader with the generic WinUSB driver and run dfu-util again and it finds the devices.

Flashing devices with dfu-util

At this point I can follow along and flash my devices per whatever instructions my manufacturer/project/boardmaker intends.

NOTE: When using dfu-util on Windows, I recommend you either be smart about your PATH and add dfu-util, or better yet, make sure the dfu-util.exe and libusb.dlls are local to your firmware so there's no confusion about what libraries are being used.
Keep dfu-util and libusb together

I'd love to see this extra step in Windows removed, but for now, I hope this write up makes it clearer and helps the lone Googler who finds this post.


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About Scott

Scott Hanselman is a former professor, former Chief Architect in finance, now speaker, consultant, father, diabetic, and Microsoft employee. He is a failed stand-up comic, a cornrower, and a book author.

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Disclaimer: The opinions expressed herein are my own personal opinions and do not represent my employer's view in any way.