Scott Hanselman

Yori - The quiet little CMD replacement that you need to install NOW

January 8, '20 Comments [12] Posted in Tools
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I did a post on the difference between a console, a terminal, and a shell a while back. We talk a lot about alternative "Terminals" like the Windows Terminal (that you should download immediately) but not shells. You do see a lot of choices in the Linux space with the top give being Bash, Zsh, Fish, Tcsh, and Ksh but not a lot about alternative shells for Windows. Did you love 4DOS? Well, READ ON. (Yes I know TCC is a thing, but Yori is a different thing)

So let's talk about a quiet little CMD replacement shell that is quietly taking over my life. You should check it out and spend some time with it. It's called Yori and it's open source and it's entirely written by one Malcolm Smith. It deserves your attention and respect because Yori has quickly become my goto "DOS but not DOS" prompt.

Yori is DOS, kinda

Of course, cmd.exe isn't DOS but it's evocative of DOS and it's "Close enough to be DOS." It'll run .cmd files and batch files. If dir, and del *.*, and rd /s feels more intuitive to you than bash shell commands, Yori will fit into your life nicely.

I use PowerShell a lot as a shell and I use Bash via WSL and Ubuntu but since I started on CMD (or command.com, even) Yori feels very comfortable because it's literally "CMD reimagined."Yori offers a number of cmd++ enhancements like:

  • Autocomplete suggestions as you type
  • Ctrl+to select Values
  • WAY better Tab completiion
  • Awesome file matching
  • Beyond MAX_PATH support for "DOS"
  • Rich Text Copy!
  • Backquote support
  • Background Jobs like Unix but for DOS. SO you can use & like a real person!
  • Alias! My goodness!
  • which (like where, but it's which!) command
  • hexdump, lines, touch, and more great added tools
  • lots of "y" utils like ydate and ymem and ymore.
  • New Environment variables make your batch files shine
  • ANSI colors/UTF-8 support!

Download Yori, make a link, pin it, or add it to your Windows Terminal of choice (see below), and then explore the extensive Guide To Yori.

Did I mention & jobs support! How often have you done a copy or xcopy and wanted to &! it and then check it later with job? Now you can!

C:\Users\Scott\Desktop>dir &!
Job 2: c:\Program Files\Yori\ydir.exe
C:\Users\Scott\Desktop>job
Job 1 (completed): c:\Program Files\Yori\ydir.exe
Job 2 (executing): c:\Program Files\Yori\ydir.exe
Job 2 completed, result 0: c:\Program Files\Yori\ydir.exe

Yori also support updating itself with "ypm -u" which is clever. Other lovely Yori-isms that will make you smile?

  • cd ~ - it works
  • cd ~desktop - does what you think it'd do
  • Win32 versions of UNIX favorites including cut, date, expr, fg, iconv, nice, sleep, split, tail, tee, wait and which
  • dir | clip - supports HTML as well!
  • durable command history

And don't minimize the amount of work that's happened here. It's a LOT. And it's a great balance between compatibility and breaking compatibility to bring the best of the old and the best of the new into a bright future.

Other must-have Malcolm Smith Tools

Now that I've "sold" you Yori (it's free!) be sure to pick up sdir (so good, a gorgeous dir replacement) and other lovely tools that Malcolm has written and put them ALL in your c:\utils folder (you have one, right? Make one! Put it in DropBox/OneDrive! Then add it to your PATH on every machine you have!) and enjoy!

Yori is lovely, paired with SDIR

Adding Yori to the Windows Terminal

Yori includes it's own improved Yori-specific terminal (to go with the Yori shell) but it also works with your favorite terminal.

If you are using the Windows Terminal, head over to your settings file (from the main Windows Terminal menu) and add something like this for a Yori menu. You don't need all of this, just the basics like commandline. I added my own colorScheme and tabTitle. You can salt your own to taste.

{
"acrylicOpacity": 0.85000002384185791,
"closeOnExit": true,
"colorScheme": "Lovelace",
"commandline": "c://Program Files//Yori//yori.exe",
"cursorColor": "#00FF00",
"cursorHeight": 25,
"cursorShape": "vintage",
"fontFace": "Cascadia Code",
"fontSize": 20,
"guid": "{7d04ce37-c00f-43ac-ba47-992cb1393215}",
"historySize": 9001,
"icon": "ms-appdata:///roaming/cmd-32.png",
"name": "DOS but not DOS",
"padding": "0, 0, 0, 0",
"snapOnInput": true,
"startingDirectory": "C:/Users/Scott/Desktop",
"tabTitle": "DOS, Kinda",
"useAcrylic": true
},

Great stuff!

I want YOU, Dear Reader, to head over to https://github.com/malxau/yori right now and give Yori and Malcolm a STAR. He's got 110 as of the time of this posting. Let's make that thousands. There's so many amazing folks out there quietly writing utilities for themselves, tirelessly, and a star is a small thing you can do to let them know "I see you and I appreciate you."


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About Scott

Scott Hanselman is a former professor, former Chief Architect in finance, now speaker, consultant, father, diabetic, and Microsoft employee. He is a failed stand-up comic, a cornrower, and a book author.

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Programmatically change your system's mic and speakers with NirCmd and Elgato StreamDeck

November 20, '19 Comments [4] Posted in Tools
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Elgato Stream DeckI've got a lot of different sound devices like USB Headphones, a formal Conference Room Speakerphone for conference calls, and 5.1 Surround Sound speakers, as well as different mics like a nice Shure XLR connected to a PV6 USB Audio Mixer, as well as the built in mics in my webcams and other devices.

There's lots of great audio apps and applets that can improve the audio switching situation on Windows. I like Audio Switcher and the similarly named https://audioswit.ch/er, for example.

You can also automatically change your audio inputs automatically depending on the app. So if you always want to record your podcast with Audacity you can tell Windows 10 to always set (lie) the audio ins and outs on an app by app basis. The app will never know the difference.

But I need to change audio a lot when I'm moving from Teams calls, recording Podcasts, and watching shows. I've got this Elgato Stream Deck that has buttons I can assign to anything. Combine the Stream Deck with the lovely NirCmd utility from NirSoft and I've got one click audio changes!

The icons are just PNGs and there's lots available online. I created a bunch of batch files (*.bat) with contents like this:

nircmdc setdefaultsounddevice "Speakers" 0

and

nircmdc setdefaultsounddevice "Headphones" 0  

The last number is 0, 1, or 2 where that means Console, Multimedia, or Communications. You can have one sound device for apps like Netflix and another for apps like Skype that identify as Communications. I just change all defaults, myself.

You can also add in commands like "setsubunitvolumedb" and others to have preset volumes and levels for line-ins. It's ideal for getting reliable results.

Elgato Stream Deck

Then just use the Stream Deck utility to assign the icon and batch file using the "System | Open" widget. Drag it over and assign and you're set! If you can't figure out what the names of your sound devices are, you can call nircmd showsoundevices.

It just took a few minutes to set this up and it'll save me a bunch of clicks every day.


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About Scott

Scott Hanselman is a former professor, former Chief Architect in finance, now speaker, consultant, father, diabetic, and Microsoft employee. He is a failed stand-up comic, a cornrower, and a book author.

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What's better than ILDasm? ILSpy and dnSpy are tools to Decompile .NET Code

May 30, '19 Comments [19] Posted in Open Source | Tools
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.NET code (C#, VB, F#, etc) compiles (for the most part) into Intermediate Language (IL) and then makes it way to native code usually by Just-in-time (JIT) compilation on the target machine. When you get a DLL/Assembly, it's pre-chewed but not full juiced, to mix my metaphors.

Often you'll come along a DLL that you want to learn more about. Sometimes you'll want to just see the structure of classes, methods, etc, and other times you want to see the IL - or a close representation of the original C#/VB/F#, etc. You're not looking at the source, you're seeing a backwards projection of the IL as whatever language you want. You're basically taking this pre-chewed food and taking it out of your mouth and getting a decent idea of what it was originally.

I've used ILDasm for years, but it's old and lame and people tease you for using it because they are cruel. ;)

Seriously, though, I use ILDasm - the IL Disassembler - simply because it's already installed. Those tweets got me thinking though that I need to update my options, so I'm trying out ILSpy and dnSpy.

ILSpy

ILSpy has been around for a while and has multiple front-ends, including ones for Linux/Mac/Windows based on Avalonia in the form of AvaloniaSpy. You can also integrate ILSpy into Visual Studio 2017 or 2019 with this extension. There is also a console decompiler and, interestingly, cross-platform PowerShell cmdlets.

ILSpy is a solid .NET decompiler

I've always liked the "Open List" feature of ILSpy where you can open a preconfigured list of assemblies you want to browse, like ASP.NET MVC, .NET 4, etc. A fun open source contribution for you might be to update the included lists with newer defaults. There's so many folks doing great work in open source out there, why not jump in and help them out?

dnSpy

dnSpy has a lovely UI AND a great Console app using the same engine. It's amazingly polished and VERY complete. I was surprised that it also has a full hex editor as well as property pages for common EXE file headers. From their GitHub, dnSpy features

  • Debug .NET Framework, .NET Core and Unity game assemblies, no source code required
  • Edit assemblies in C# or Visual Basic or IL, and edit all metadata
  • Light and dark themes
  • Extensible, write your own extension
  • High DPI support (per-monitor DPI aware)

dnSpy takes it to the next level with an integrated Debugger, meaning you can attach to a running process and debug it without source code - but it feels like source code because it's decompiling for you. Note where it says C#, I can choose C#, VB, or IL as a "view" on my decompiled code.

dnSpy is amazing for looking inside .NET apps

Here is dnSpy actually debugging ILSpy and stopped at a decompiled breakpoint.

image

There's a lot of great low-level stuff in this space. Another cool tool is Reflexil, a .NET Assembly Editor as well as de4dot by the same mysterious author as dnSpy. JetBrains has the excellent dotPeek and Telerik has JustDecompile. Commercial Tools include Reflector.

What's your favorite?


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About Scott

Scott Hanselman is a former professor, former Chief Architect in finance, now speaker, consultant, father, diabetic, and Microsoft employee. He is a failed stand-up comic, a cornrower, and a book author.

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Your computer is not a black box - Understanding Processes and Ports on Windows by exploring

April 16, '19 Comments [13] Posted in Tools
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TCPViewI did a blog post many years ago reminding folks that The Internet is not a Black Box. Virtually nothing is hidden from you. The same is true for your computer, whether it runs Linux, Mac, or Windows.

Here's something that happened today at lunch. I was testing a local DNS Server (more on this on Thursday) and I started it up...and it didn't work.

In order to test a DNS server on Windows, you can go to the command line and run "nslookup" then use the command "server 1.1.1.1" where 1.1.1.1 is the DNS server you'd like to try out. Go ahead and try it now. Run cmd.exe or powershell.exe and then run "nslookup" and then type any domain name. You should get an IP address.

Given that I was trying to run a DNS Server on localhost:53 (Port 53 is where DNS usually hangs out, just like Port 80 is where Web Servers (HTTP) hang out and 443 is where Secured Web Servers (HTTPS) usually are) I should be able to do this. I'm trying to send DNS requests to localhost:53

C:\Users\scott> nslookup
Default Server: pihole
Address: 192.168.151.6

> server 127.0.0.1
Default Server: localhost
Address: 127.0.0.1

> hanselman.com
Server: localhost
Address: 127.0.0.1

*** localhost can't find hanselman.com: No response from server
> hanselman.com

Weird, that didn't work. Let me try a DNS Server I know works like Google's 8.8.8.8 public DNS

> server 8.8.8.8
Default Server: google-public-dns-a.google.com
Address: 8.8.8.8

> hanselman.com
Server: google-public-dns-a.google.com
Address: 8.8.8.8

Non-authoritative answer:
Name: hanselman.com
Address: 206.72.120.92

Ok, it seems my local DNS isn't listening on point 53. Checking the logs of the Technitium local DNS server shows this:

[2019-04-15 23:26:31 UTC] [0.0.0.0:53] [UDP] System.Net.Sockets.SocketException (10048): Only one usage of each socket address (protocol/network address/port) is normally permitted
at System.Net.Sockets.Socket.UpdateStatusAfterSocketErrorAndThrowException(SocketError error, String callerName)
at System.Net.Sockets.Socket.DoBind(EndPoint endPointSnapshot, SocketAddress socketAddress)
at System.Net.Sockets.Socket.Bind(EndPoint localEP)
at DnsServerCore.DnsServer.Start() in Z:\Technitium\Projects\DnsServer\DnsServerCore\DnsServer.cs:line 1234
[2019-04-15 23:26:31 UTC] [0.0.0.0:53] [TCP] DNS Server was bound successfully.
[2019-04-15 23:26:31 UTC] [[::]:53] [UDP] DNS Server was bound successfully.
[2019-04-15 23:26:31 UTC] [[::]:53] [TCP] DNS Server was bound successfully.

The DNS Server's process is trying to bind to TCP:53 and UDP:53 using IPv4 (expressed as "all local network adapters" with 0.0.0.0:53) and then TCP:53 and UDP:53 using IPv6 (expressed as localhost using [::]:53) but it seems like the UDP binding to port 53 on IPv4 failed. Weird.

Someone else is listening in on Port 53 localhost via IPv4.

That's weird. How can we find out what ports are open locally?

I can run "netstat" and ask Windows for a list of all TCP/IP connections and the processes that are listening on which ports. I'll also PIPE the results to "clip" which will put it in the clipboard automatically. Then I can look at it in a text editor (or I could pipe it through find or findstr).

You can run netstat --help to get the right arguments. I've asked it to tell me the process IDs and all the details it can.

Active Connections
Proto Local Address State PID

TCP 0.0.0.0:53 LISTENING 27456
[dotnet.exe]

UDP 0.0.0.0:53 LISTENING 11128
[svchost.exe]

TCP [::]:53 *:* 27456
[dotnet.exe]

UDP [::]:53 *:* 27456
[dotnet.exe]

Hm, a service is already listening on port 53. I'm running Windows 10, not a Server so it's odd there's already a DNS listener on port 53.

I wonder what service is it?

I can check the Services Tab of the Task Manager and sort by PID. Or can I run "tasklist" and ask directly.

C:\WINDOWS\system32>tasklist /svc /fi "pid eq 11128"

Image Name PID Services
========================= ======== ============================================
svchost.exe 11128 SharedAccess

That's Internet Connection Sharing, and it's used by Docker and other apps for NAT translation and routing. I can shut it down with the sc (service control) or with "net stop."

C:\WINDOWS\system32>net stop sharedaccess
The Internet Connection Sharing (ICS) service is stopping.
The Internet Connection Sharing (ICS) service was stopped successfully.

Now I can start my DNS Server again (it's written in .NET Core) and I can see with tcpview.exe that it's listening on all appropriate ports.

TCPView showing everything on Port 53

In conclusion, it's a good reminder to refresh yourself on the basics of IPv4, IPv6, how processes talk to/allocate ports, what Process IDs (PIDs) are, and their relationships. Much of this is taught in computer science university courses but if you're self taught or not doing low level work every day it's easy to forget.

Virtually nothing on your computer is hidden from you!


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About Scott

Scott Hanselman is a former professor, former Chief Architect in finance, now speaker, consultant, father, diabetic, and Microsoft employee. He is a failed stand-up comic, a cornrower, and a book author.

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Accessibility Insights for the Web and Windows makes accessibility even easier

April 9, '19 Comments [2] Posted in Tools
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Accessibility InsightsI recently stumbled upon https://accessibilityinsights.io. There's both a Chrome/Edge extension and a Windows app, both designed to make it easier to find and fix accessibility issues in your websites and apps.

The GitHub for the Accessibility Insights extension for the web is at https://github.com/Microsoft/accessibility-insights-web and they have three trains you can get on:

It builds on top of the Deque Axe core engine with a really fresh UI. The "FastPass" found these issues with my podcast site in seconds - which kind of makes me feel bad, but at least I know what's wrong!

However, the most impressive visualization in my opinion was the Tab Stop test! See below how it draws clear numbered line segments as you Tab from element. This is a brilliant way to understand exactly how someone without a mouse would move through your site.

I can easily see what elements are interactive and what's totally inaccessible with a keynote! I can also see if the the tab order is inconsistent with the logical order that's communicated visually.

Visualized Tab Stops as numbered points on a line segment that moves through the DOM

After the FastPass and Tab Visualizations, there's an extensive guided assessment that walks you through 22 deeper accessibility areas, each with several sub issues you might run into. As you move through each area, most have Visual Helpers to help you find elements that may have issues.

Checking for accessible elements on a web site

After you're done you and export your results as a self-contained HTML file you can check in and then compare with future test results.

There is also an Accessibility Insights for Windows if I wanted to check, for example, the accessibility of the now open-source Windows Calculator https://github.com/Microsoft/calculator.

It also supports Tab Stop visualization and is a lot like Spy++ - if you remember that classic developer app. There were no Accessibility issues with Calculator - which makes sense since it ships with Windows and a lot of people worked to make it Accessible.

Instead I tried to test Notepad2. Here you can see it found two elements that can have keybook focus but have no names. Even cooler, you can click "New Bug" and it will create a new accessibility bug for you in Azure DevOps.

Test Results for Windows apps being checked for accessibility

The Windows app is also open source and up at https://github.com/Microsoft/accessibility-insights-windows for you to explore and file issues! There's also excellent developer docs to get you up to speed on the organization of the codebase and how each class and project works.

You can download both of these free open source Accessibility Tools at https://accessibilityinsights.io and start testing your websites and apps. I have some work to do!


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About Scott

Scott Hanselman is a former professor, former Chief Architect in finance, now speaker, consultant, father, diabetic, and Microsoft employee. He is a failed stand-up comic, a cornrower, and a book author.

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Disclaimer: The opinions expressed herein are my own personal opinions and do not represent my employer's view in any way.